Manual for the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales (DASS)

Publisher: Psychology Foundation
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    • "To determine possible influences of trait depression, anxiety and stress tension on memory performance, each participant received selected items from the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS; [30]). Furthermore, the Immersive Tendencies Questionnaire (ITQ; [31]) as well as the Igroup Presence Questionnaire (IPQ; [32]) were 7 used to determine the degree of immersion upon episodic memory performance in VR. "
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    ABSTRACT: Emotions can modulate the encoding and recollection of personal events. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different emotional states (pleasant, neutral or anxious) on episodic memory formation in a virtual reality (VR) setting. Emotional states were induced by the presentation of pleasant, neutral or anxiety-inducing movie clips prior to encountering specific events in a VR scenario. Episodic memory performance of healthy participants in which an anxious emotional state had been induced was inferior to those of the neutral and pleasant conditions. In the anxious condition, participants were particularly impaired regarding their memory for the location of events. A correlational analysis indicated that high levels of negative arousal were associated with poor memory for the temporal and spatial context of events. In contrast, high levels of happiness were associated with better memory for the spatial context of events. Our data provide evidence that emotional arousal can modulate memory for what happened, where and when.
    Behavioural brain research 11/2015; 298(Pt B). DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.09.037 · 3.03 Impact Factor
    • "The intensity of depressive symptoms was evaluated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-21; Hamilton, 1960). Additionally, subjects completed the self-rating Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995; Jovanovic et al. 2014). The DASS – Depression subscale assesses dysphoria , hopelessness, devaluation of life, self-deprecation, lack of interest or involvement and anhedonia. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Current literature provides insufficient information on the degree of cognitive impairment during and after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), mostly due to the fact that applied tests lacked sensitivity and flexibility. Our goal was to evaluate cognitive functioning in adult depressed patients treated with bi-temporal ECT, using tests sensitive for detection of possible acute and medium-term memory changes. Method: Thirty adult patients with major depressive disorder, treated with a course of bi-temporal ECT, underwent clinical and cognitive measurements three times: at baseline, immediately after a course of ECT, and 1 month later. For cognition assessment, we used learning and visual, spatial and figural memory tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Results: Bi-temporal ECT has proven to be an effective treatment. The linear mixed model, used to analyze changes in depression severity and patients' cognitive performances over time and to assess dynamic correlations between aforementioned features, did not show any significant memory impairment as a potential acute or medium-term ECT effect. However, it yielded significant improvement on visual memory and learning at the follow-up, which positively correlated with the improvement of depression. Conclusion: Good progress is being made in the search for ECT-related acute and medium-term cognitive side-effects by using the tests sensitive to detect memory dysfunction with parallel forms of the tasks (to counter practice effects on repeat testing). Our results on learning and memory in relation to ECT during treatment of depression did not bring forth any prolonged and significant bi-temporal ECT-related memory deficit.
    Psychological Medicine 10/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0033291715002287 · 5.94 Impact Factor
    • "The two remaining factors of this model are positive affectivity, which, when low, is relatively specific for depression, and physiological activation, which is relatively specific to anxiety. Lovibond and Lovibond (1995) [9], authors of anxiety, depression and stress scales (DASS), assume that psychological disorders are not categories, that is, the differences between depression , anxiety and stress, experienced by normal subjects and patients, are essentially level ones: depression is characterized mainly by the loss of self-esteem and motivation, and is associated with the perception of low probability of achieving life goals that are meaningful to the individual as a person; anxiety emphasizes the links between persistent state of anxiety and intense fear responses; stress suggests states of excitement and persistent tension, with low resistance to frustration and disappointment. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of chronic psychosocial stress and resilience, including at a biological level (immune and neuroendocrine function) in Portuguese citizens with psychic anomaly/mental disorder. The sample aggregated 69 participants. It has been used the following psychometric instruments: 21-item depression, anxiety and stress scales (DASS-21), in the Portuguese validated version; measuring state resilience (MSR), in the Portuguese validated version; the Portuguese scale of 23 questions on vulnerability to stress. Serum levels of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, antibodies anti-viral capsid antigen of Epstein-Barr virus, trig-lycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and body mass index have been measured. It has been concluded that factors of vulnerability to stress and chronic stress, of social nature (lack of social support, adverse living conditions), correlate positively with depression, anxiety and stress, and, through alostatic load, are involved in a greater propensity for immune and neuroendocrine dysfunction in this population.
    Open Journal of Psychiatry 10/2015; 5(4):362-373. DOI:10.4236/ojpsych.2015.54041
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