Biofloc technology in aquaculture: Beneficial effects and future challenges

Aquaculture (Impact Factor: 1.88). 08/2012; 356-357:351-356. DOI: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2012.04.046


As the human population continues to grow, food production industries such as aquaculture will need to expand as well. In order to preserve the environment and the natural resources, this expansion will need to take place in a sustainable way. Biofloc technology is a technique of enhancing water quality in aquaculture through balancing carbon and nitrogen in the system. The technology has recently gained attention as a sustainable method to control water quality, with the added value of producing proteinaceous feed in situ. In this review, we will discuss the beneficial effects of the technology and identify some challenges for future research.

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    • "The optimum C/N ratio will lead for effective nutrient removal in aquaculture system culturing catfish and can be applied for sustainable aquaculture industry. In addition, previous studies have indicated that BFT could provide a practical solution for overwintering problem of fin fish as well as allowing a higher stock density (Strom, 2006; Crab et al., 2012). The overwintering finfish had achieved a survival rate of 97 ± 6% for the fish with 100 g of weight and 80 ± 4% for the fish with 50 g of weight. "

    • "Different studies with some penaeid species confirm that the use of nurseries in the biofloc system (BFT) contributes to the rapid growth of the cultured organisms (Fóes et al., 2011; Emerenciano et al., 2012; Wasielesky et al., 2013). The BFT is an environmental and sustainable technology used in aquaculture to maintain water quality through converting nitrogenous waste into bacterial proteinaceous biomass, after the addition of carbohydrate sources (Crab et al., 2012; Xu et al., 2013), and which is subsequently consumed by the cultivated aquatic organisms (Avnimelech, 2005). The BFT system is formed predominantly by aerobic and heterotrophic bacteria, protozoa, metazoan, microalgae, exoskeletons, feces, and remains of dead organisms (Schryver et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare two recirculating culture systems, clear-water (CW) vs. biofloc (BFT) system, on the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae reared in indoor nursery tanks at four stocking densities (1500, 3000, 6000, and 9000 orgs/m3) during 42 days. In the study, the mean final growth weight fluctuated between 0.34 and 1.26 g, with a survival range of 85.0–98.4% at the four stocking densities. In both systems, survival was not affected by stocking density. The mean final weight was higher in the culture with CW (≈0.64, 0.41, 0.31, and 0.17 g/org at the stocking densities of 1500, 3000, 6000, and 9000 orgs/m3, respectively) than in the BFT system. Specific growth rate (SGR) values (CW = 9.7–11.8 and BFT system = 8.6–10.1% weight increase/day) were higher at all treatments in the CW system. Our results indicate that in CW-recirculation system it is possible to obtain good production results in shrimp postlarvae nurseries under intensive farming condition.
    Aquacultural Engineering 09/2015; 68:28-34. DOI:10.1016/j.aquaeng.2015.07.004 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    • "Discharge of aquaculture effluents has been associated with nutrient and organic enrichment of receiving coastal aquatic ecosystems (GESAMP, 1991, 1996; Tho et al., 2014). Attempts to treat aquaculture wastewater have ranged from the use of constructed wetlands (Buhmann and Papenbrock, 2013), settling basis (Jones et al., 2001; Engle and Valderrama, 2003), artificial substrates (Stewart et al., 2006; Arnold et al., 2009), bivalve filtration (Jones et al., 2001), reduction of water discharge (Hopkins et al., 1993), and more recently, use of microbial-based zero or lowwater exchange rearing systems (Wasielesky et al., 2006; Avnimelech, 2007; Ballester et al., 2010; Crab et al., 2012; Hende et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study compared the bioavailability of crude protein and lipid from biofloc meals generated with an activated sludge system using two water sources: wastewater from shrimp experimental culture (BFL-W) and, artificially, using clean seawater (BFL-C). The sludge system operated by chemical and organic fertilization three times per week. Sampling of bioflocs occurred every two days during 81 days. To evaluate digestibility, each type of biofloc meal was incorporated into a reference diet (REF) at 300 g/kg. Another diet acted as a negative control (NEG) by using fish waste meal. The apparent digestibility of bioflocs was estimated by the indirect method using chromic oxide (Cr2O3) as the inert marker at 10 g/kg of the diet. Juvenile L. vannamei of 5.09±0.79 g (n = 440) were stocked at 10 shrimp/tank in 44 tanks of 61 L each that operated under a water recirculating regime. Biofloc meals contained a high ash content (591.0-649.2 g/kg) combined with a low crude protein content (95.9-137.3 g/kg). After 26 days, shrimp achieved a final survival of 93.2±0.8% and a biomass gain of 37.1±1.8 g/tank. Final shrimp body weight ranged from 9.01±0.15 to 9.45±0.13 g. The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of crude protein in the biofloc produced from BFL-W, BFL-C and fish waste meal (NEG) reached 26.0, 25.7, and 64.1%, respectively. Similarly, the lipid ADC was 78.9, 67.9, and 85.8%, respectively. This study indicated that biofloc meals had a low protein availability for L. vannamei. However, although low levels of lipid were present, it proved to be available for the species. The dietary inclusion of biofloc meal appears to have a growth-promoting effect on shrimp, which may be associated with trace minerals, or other nutrients not identified in this study.
    Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 08/2015; 44(8):269 - 275. DOI:10.1590/S1806-92902015000800001 · 0.36 Impact Factor
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