Treatment outcomes of patients with cardiac stage III light chain (AL) amyloidosis remain poorly studied. Such cases have been excluded from most clinical studies due to perceived dismal prognosis. We report treatment outcomes of 346 patients with stage III AL amyloidosis from the United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, and Greece. Median overall survival (OS) was 7 months with OS at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of 73%, 55%, 46%, and 29%, respectively; 42% died before first response evaluation. On an intention-to-treat basis, the overall hematologic response rate was 33%, including a complete response rate of 12%. OS rates at 12 and 24 months, respectively, for 201 response evaluable patients were 88% and 85% for complete responders, 74% and 53% for partial responders, and 39% and 22% for nonresponders. Forty-five percent of responders achieved an organ response. Amino-terminal fragment of brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) >8500 ng/L and systolic blood pressure (SBP) <100 mm Hg were the only factors that independently impacted OS and identified an especially poor prognosis subgroup of patients with a median OS of only 3 months. Outcome and organ function of stage III AL amyloidosis without very elevated NT-proBNP and low SBP is improved by a very good hematologic response to chemotherapy.
"According to the revised prognostic staging system for AL amyloidosis, the present patient is categorized to stage 3 (NT-ProBNP ≥1800 pg/mL, and FLC-diff ≥18 mg/dL).5 Both studies indicated that the survival curves of these most advanced stage III patients had dropped steeply at first 6 months after diagnosis.4,5 Therefore, the risk of developing lethal arrhythmia due to cardiac amyloidosis is estimated to be extremely high in the present patient. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 64-year-old female was diagnosed with systemic amyloidosis associated with multiple myeloma. Bortezomib and dexamethasone-therapy was initiated; however, she developed lethal ventricular fibrillation (VF) and cardiac arrest after 84 hours of therapy. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation using direct current shocks with epinephrine and amiodarone was initiated but failed to receive cardiac function. Although her arterial pulsations recovered immediately after the injection of vasopressin, she died of heart failure 8 hours after the onset of VF. Cardiac amyloidosis was verified by autopsy. Although the direct association of bortezomib with lethal VF remained to be clarified in our patient, the current report emphasizes on bortezomib as a substantial risk factor for cardiomyocyte damage. The potential risk of lethal events associated with cardiac amyloidosis should be carefully considered during bortezomib treatment for patients with AL amyloidosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AL amyloidosis patients with multi-organ and particularly cardiac involvement have historically been considered to have a bad prognosis. The introduction of autologous stem cell transplantation was associated with unacceptable toxicity in high-risk patients, but responding patients have prolonged overall survival. Toxicities can be decreased by careful patient selection, but this reduces the applicability of this treatment modality to a limited number of patients. Efforts are therefore needed to design novel more effective regimens, with the use of new medications, such as thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib, next generation immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors. Their combination with dexamethasone and alkylating agents show promising results, allowing a high percentage of remission and subsequent event-free and overall survival, even in a significant proportion of high risk, poor prognosis populations. This review includes the state-of-the-art treatment for AL amyloidosis patients as of 2012, in light of the progress in management of this disease during recent years.
British Journal of Haematology 01/2013; 160(5). DOI:10.1111/bjh.12191 · 4.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this issue of Blood, Wechalekar and colleagues demonstrate the importance of treating all patients with amyloidosis, no matter how severe their situation is, because clinically important responses are seen. They also identify the adverse prognostic impact of a systolic blood pressure of < 100 mm Hg.
Sarah W. Yip, Kathleen M. Carroll, Marc N. Potenza
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