Article

Sleep Quality and Preclinical Alzheimer Disease

JAMA neurology 03/2013; 70(5):1-7. DOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.2334
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT IMPORTANCE Sleep and circadian problems are very common in Alzheimer disease (AD). Recent animal studies suggest a bidirectional relationship between sleep and β-amyloid (Aβ), a key molecule involved in AD pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE To test whether Aβ deposition in preclinical AD, prior to the appearance of cognitive impairment, is associated with changes in quality or quantity of sleep. DESIGN Cross-sectional study conducted from October 2010 to June 2012. SETTING General community volunteers at the Washington University Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. PARTICIPANTS Cognitively normal individuals (n = 145) 45 years and older were recruited from longitudinal studies of memory and aging at the Washington University Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Valid actigraphy data were recorded in 142. The majority (124 of 142) were recruited from the Adult Children Study, in which all were aged 45 to 75 years at baseline and 50% have a parental history of late-onset AD. The rest were recruited from a community volunteer cohort in which all were older than 60 years and healthy at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Sleep was objectively measured using actigraphy for 2 weeks. Sleep efficiency, which is the percentage of time in bed spent asleep, was the primary measure of sleep quality. Total sleep time was the primary measure of sleep quantity. Cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 levels were used to determine whether amyloid deposition was present or absent. Concurrent sleep diaries provided nap information. RESULTS Amyloid deposition, as assessed by Aβ42 levels, was present in 32 participants (22.5%). This group had worse sleep quality, as measured by sleep efficiency (80.4% vs 83.7%), compared with those without amyloid deposition, after correction for age, sex, and APOE ϵ4 allele carrier status (P = .04). In contrast, quantity of sleep was not significantly different between groups, as measured by total sleep time. Frequent napping, 3 or more days per week, was associated with amyloid deposition (31.2% vs 14.7%; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Amyloid deposition in the preclinical stage of AD appears to be associated with worse sleep quality but not with changes in sleep quantity.

1 Follower
 · 
108 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Emerging data suggest an important relationship between sleep and Alzheimer's disease (AD), but how poor sleep promotes the development of AD remains unclear. Here, using a Drosophila model of AD, we provide evidence suggesting that changes in neuronal excitability underlie the effects of sleep loss on AD pathogenesis. β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation leads to reduced and fragmented sleep, while chronic sleep deprivation increases Aβ burden. Moreover, enhancing sleep reduces Aβ deposition. Increasing neuronal excitability phenocopies the effects of reducing sleep on Aβ, and decreasing neuronal activity blocks the elevated Aβ accumulation induced by sleep deprivation. At the single neuron level, we find that chronic sleep deprivation, as well as Aβ expression, enhances intrinsic neuronal excitability. Importantly, these data reveal that sleep loss exacerbates Aβ-induced hyperexcitability and suggest that defects in specific K(+) currents underlie the hyperexcitability caused by sleep loss and Aβ expression. Finally, we show that feeding levetiracetam, an anti-epileptic medication, to Aβ-expressing flies suppresses neuronal excitability and significantly prolongs their lifespan. Our findings directly link sleep loss to changes in neuronal excitability and Aβ accumulation and further suggest that neuronal hyperexcitability is an important mediator of Aβ toxicity. Taken together, these data provide a mechanistic framework for a positive feedback loop, whereby sleep loss and neuronal excitation accelerate the accumulation of Aβ, a key pathogenic step in the development of AD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Current Biology 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2015.01.016 · 9.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Disturbances in the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms are common symptoms of Alzheimer Disease (AD), and they have generally been considered as late consequences of the neurodegenerative processes. Recent evidence demonstrates that sleep-wake and circadian disruption often occur early in the course of the disease and may even precede the development of cognitive symptoms. Furthermore, the sleep-wake cycle appears to regulate levels of the pathogenic amyloid-beta peptide in the brain, and manipulating sleep can influence AD-related pathology in mouse models via multiple mechanisms. Finally, the circadian clock system, which controls the sleep-wake cycle and other diurnal oscillations in mice and humans, may also have a role in the neurodegenerative process. In this review, we examine the current literature related to the mechanisms by which sleep and circadian rhythms might impact AD pathogenesis, and we discuss potential therapeutic strategies targeting these systems for the prevention of AD.
    Experimental and Molecular Medicine 03/2015; 47(3):e148. DOI:10.1038/emm.2014.121 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Disturbance of the circadian system, manifested as disrupted daily rhythms of physiologic parameters such as sleep, activity, and hormone secretion, has long been observed as a symptom of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease. Circadian abnormalities have generally been considered consequences of the neurodegeneration. Recent evidence suggests, however, that circadian disruption might actually contribute to the neurodegenerative process, and thus might be a modifiable cause of neural injury. Herein we will review the evidence implicating circadian rhythms disturbances and clock gene dysfunction in neurodegeneration, with an emphasis on future research directions and potential therapeutic implications for neurodegenerative diseases.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 02/2015; 6:29. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2015.00029

Full-text

Download
22 Downloads
Available from
Jul 15, 2014