Graft-Versus-Host Disease and Graft-Versus-Tumor Effects After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.
ABSTRACT PURPOSEWe designed a minimal-intensity conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies unable to tolerate high-intensity regimens because of age, serious comorbidities, or previous high-dose HCT. The regimen allows the purest assessment of graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effects apart from conditioning and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) not augmented by regimen-related toxicities. PATIENTS AND METHODS
Patients received low-dose total-body irradiation ± fludarabine before HCT from HLA-matched related (n = 611) or unrelated (n = 481) donors, followed by mycophenolate mofetil and a calcineurin inhibitor to aid engraftment and control GVHD. Median patient age was 56 years (range, 7 to 75 years). Forty-five percent of patients had comorbidity scores of ≥ 3. Median follow-up time was 5 years (range, 0.6 to 12.7 years).ResultsDepending on disease risk, comorbidities, and GVHD, lasting remissions were seen in 45% to 75% of patients, and 5-year survival ranged from 25% to 60%. At 5 years, the nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rate was 24%, and the relapse mortality rate was 34.5%. Most NRM was a result of GVHD. The most significant factors associated with GVHD-associated NRM were serious comorbidities and grafts from unrelated donors. Most relapses occurred early while the immune system was compromised. GVT effects were comparable after unrelated and related grafts. Chronic GVHD, but not acute GVHD, further increased GVT effects. The potential benefit associated with chronic GVHD was outweighed by increased NRM. CONCLUSION
Allogeneic HCT relying on GVT effects is feasible and results in cures of an appreciable number of malignancies. Improved results could come from methods that control progression of malignancy early after HCT and effectively prevent GVHD.
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ABSTRACT: The Pretransplant Assessment of Mortality (PAM) score was developed in 2006 to predict risk of mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Transplant practices have evolved during the past decade, suggesting the need to reevaluate the performance of the PAM score. We used statistical modeling to analyze and recalibrate mortality based on overall PAM scores, its components, and conditioning regimen in a retrospective cohort of 1549 patients who had HCT from 2003 through 2009. PAM scores correlated with mortality, but the effect size was smaller in the current study than previously. PAM scores also demonstrated a stronger association with mortality in patients who received myeloablative conditioning than in those who received reduced-intensity conditioning. In contrast to the original study, carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, serum alanine aminotransferase and serum creatinine concentrations were no longer significantly associated with 2-year mortality, while patient and donor CMV serology was associated with mortality in the current cohort. Based on our findings, we developed and tested a revised PAM score for clinicians to estimate survival after allogeneic HCT with myeloablative conditioning regimens for patients with hematologic malignancy. Prognostic models such as the PAM score should be updated and recalibrated periodically to accommodate changes in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 01/2015; 21(5). DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.01.011 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the major cause of non-relapse mortality (NRM) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HCT). The severity of symptoms at the onset of GVHD does not accurately define risk, and thus most patients are treated alike with high dose systemic corticosteroids. We aimed to define clinically meaningful risk strata for patients with newly diagnosed acute GVHD using plasma biomarkers. We prospectively collected plasma from 492 HCT patients with newly diagnosed acute GVHD and randomly divided them into training (n=328) and test (n=164) sets. We used the concentrations of three recently validated biomarkers (TNFR1, ST2, and REG3α) to create an algorithm that computed the probability of NRM six months after GVHD onset for individual patients in the training set alone. We rank ordered the probabilities and identified thresholds that created three distinct NRM scores. We evaluated the algorithm in the testset, and again in an independent validation set of 300 additional HCT patients enrolled on multicenter clinical trials of primary therapy for acute GVHD. In all three datasets, the cumulative incidence of twelve month NRM significantly increased as the GVHD score increased (8% [95% confidence interval (CI); 3%, 16%], 27% [95% CI; 20%%, 34%], and 46% [95% CI; 33%, 58%], for scores 1, 2 and 3 respectively in the multicenter validation set, p<0 · 0001). Conversely, the response rates to primary GVHD treatment decreased as the GVHD score increased (86%, 67%, and 46%, for scores 1, 2 and 3 respectively in the multicenter validation set, p<0 · 0001). Biomarker-based scores can be used to guide risk-adapted therapy at the onset of acute GVHD.01/2015; 2(1):e21-e29. DOI:10.1016/S2352-3026(14)00035-0
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ABSTRACT: Related HLA-haploidentical BMT with high-dose posttransplantation cyclophosphamide (PTCy) is being increasingly utilized because of its acceptable safety profile. To better define outcomes of nonmyeloablative (NMA), HLA-haploidentical BMT with PTCy, 372 consecutive adult hematologic malignancy patients who underwent this procedure were retrospectively studied. Risk-stratified outcomes were evaluated using the refined Disease Risk Index (DRI), developed to stratify disease risk across histologies and allogeneic BMT regimens. Patients received uniform conditioning, T-cell replete allografting, then PTCy, mycophenolate mofetil, and tacrolimus. Six-month probabilities of nonrelapse mortality and severe acute graft-versus-host disease were 8% and 4%. With 4.1-year median follow-up, 3-year probabilities of relapse, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 46%, 40%, and 50% respectively. By refined DRI group, low (N=71), intermediate (N=241), and high/very high (N=60) risk groups had 3-year PFS estimates of 65%, 37%, and 22% (P < .0001), with corresponding 3-year OS estimates of 71%, 48%, and 35% (P = .0001). On multivariable analyses, the DRI was statistically significantly associated with relapse, PFS, and OS (each P < .001). This analysis demonstrates that the DRI effectively risk-stratifies recipients of NMA HLA-haploidentical BMT with PTCy, and also suggests that this transplantation platform yields similar survivals to those seen with HLA-matched BMT. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hematology.Blood 03/2015; 125(19). DOI:10.1182/blood-2015-01-623991 · 9.78 Impact Factor