A cornucopia of human polyomaviruses.
ABSTRACT During the past 6 years, focused virus hunting has led to the discovery of nine new human polyomaviruses, including Merkel cell polyomavirus, which has been linked to Merkel cell carcinoma, a lethal skin cell cancer. The discovery of so many new and highly divergent human polyomaviruses raises key questions regarding their evolution, tropism, latency, reactivation, immune evasion and contribution to disease. This Review describes the similarities and differences among the new human polyomaviruses and discusses how these viruses might interact with their human host.
SourceAvailable from: Ibrahim Afolabi Abdulsalam[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Polyomaviruses are non-enveloped, dsDNA viruses that are common in mammals, including humans. All polyomaviruses encode the large T-antigen and small t-antigen proteins that share conserved functional domains, comprising binding motifs for the tumor suppressors pRb and p53, and for protein phosphatase 2A, respectively. At present, 13 different human polyomaviruses are known, and for some of them their large T-antigen and small t-antigen have been shown to possess oncogenic properties in cell culture and animal models, while similar functions are assumed for the large T-and small t-antigen of other human polyomaviruses. However, so far the Merkel cell polyomavirus seems to be the only human polyomavirus associated with cancer. The large T-and small t-antigen exert their tumorigenic effects through classical hallmarks of cancer: inhibiting tumor suppressors, activating tumor promoters, preventing apoptosis, inducing angiogenesis and stimulating metastasis. This review elaborates on the putative roles of human polyomaviruses in some of the emerging hallmarks of cancer. The reciprocal interactions between human polyomaviruses and the immune system response are discussed, a plausible role of polyomavirus-encoded and polyomavirus-induced microRNA in cancer is described, and the effect of polyomaviruses on energy homeostasis and exosomes is explored. Therapeutic strategies against these emerging hallmarks of cancer are also suggested.Viruses 01/2015; 7(4):1871-1901. DOI:10.3390/v7041871 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The human polyomavirus BK expresses a 66 amino-acid peptide referred to as agnoprotein. Though mutants lacking agnoprotein are severely reduced in producing infectious virions, the exact function of this peptide remains incompletely understood. To elucidate the function of agnoprotein, we searched for novel cellular interaction partners.Methods Yeast-two hybrid assay was performed with agnoprotein as bait against human kidney and thymus libraries. The interaction between agnoprotein and putative partners was further examined by GST pull down, co-immunoprecipitation, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies. Biochemical and biological studies were performed to examine the functional implication of the interaction of agnoprotein with cellular target proteins.ResultsProliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which acts as a processivity factor for DNA polymerase ¿, was identified as an interaction partner. The interaction between agnoprotein and PCNA is direct and occurs also in human cells. Agnoprotein exerts an inhibitory effect on PCNA-dependent DNA synthesis in vitro and reduces cell proliferation when ectopically expressed. Overexpression of PCNA restores agnoprotein-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation.Conclusion Our data suggest that PCNA is a genuine interaction partner of agnoprotein and the inhibitory effect on PCNA-dependent DNA synthesis by the agnoprotein may play a role in switching off (viral) DNA replication late in the viral replication cycle when assembly of replicated genomes and synthesized viral capsid proteins occurs.Virology Journal 02/2015; 12(1):7. DOI:10.1186/s12985-014-0220-1 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In our recombinant baculovirus system, VP1 protein of merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), which is implicated as a causative agent in Merkel cell carcinoma, was self-assembled into MCPyV-like particles (MCPyV-LP) with two different sizes in insect cells, followed by being released into the culture medium. DNA molecules of 1.5- to 5-kb, which were derived from host insect cells, were packaged in large, ~50-nm spherical particles but not in small, ~25-nm particles. Structure reconstruction using cryo-electron microscopy showed that large MCPyV-LPs are composed of 72 pentameric capsomeres arranged in a T = 7 icosahedral surface lattice and are 48 nm in diameter. The MCPyV-LPs did not share antigenic determinants with BK- and JC viruses (BKPyV and JCPyV). The VLP-based enzyme immunoassay was applied to investigate age-specific prevalence of MCPyV infection in the general Japanese population aged 1-70 years. While seroprevalence of MCPyV increased with age in children and young individuals, its seropositivity in each age group was lower compared with BKPyV and JCPyV.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(2):e0115646. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0115646 · 3.53 Impact Factor