Management of Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease (Compilation of 2005 and 2011 ACCF/AHA Guideline Recommendations) : A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the peripheral arteries, a thrombus superimposed on atherosclerosis contributes to the progression of peripheral artery disease (PAD), producing intermittent claudication (IC), ischemic necrosis, and, potentially, loss of the limb. PAD with IC is often undiagnosed and, in turn, undertreated. The low percentage of diagnosis (∼30%) in this setting of PAD is of particular concern because of the potential worsening of PAD (amputation) and the high risk of adverse vascular outcomes (vascular death, coronary artery disease, stroke). A Medline literature search of the highest-quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials documents that, due to risk of bias, imprecision, and indirectness, the overall quality of the evidence concerning diagnostic tools and antithrombotic interventions in PAD is generally low. Areas of research emerge from the information collected. Appropriate treatments for PAD patients will only derive from ad-hoc studies. Innovative imaging techniques are needed to identify PAD subjects at the highest vascular risk. Whether IC unresponsive to physical exercise and smoking cessation identifies those with a heritable predisposition to more severe vascular events deserves to be addressed. Devising ways to improve prevention of vascular events in patients with PAD implies a co-ordinated approach in vascular medicine.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a hallmark of generalized atherosclerosis. Depending on the specific diagnostic criteria that are being used, the prevalence of PAD may be as high as 30 % in the population of people 70 or more years old. Unfortunately, although PAD is prevalent and has many important consequences for patients, it is often under-detected and under-treated by primary care physicians. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the available literature on epidemiology and antiplatelets management of PAD patients. In particular, we focus on the hidden side of PAD burden, the asymptomatic patients, who are at high risk of negative cardiovascular outcomes. Identification of such PAD patients is therefore an important clinical goal to reduce mortality and morbidity and reduce the social cost of atherosclerotic disease. Early screening of PAD and an evidence-based antithrombotic approach are also discussed as potential strategies to counteract the negative impact of such condition in general population, as well as, in patients with other cardiovascular diseases.
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