Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

Address correspondence to Jessica A. Belser, .
Microbiology and molecular biology reviews: MMBR (Impact Factor: 14.61). 03/2013; 77(1):144-56. DOI: 10.1128/MMBR.00058-12
Source: PubMed


SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.

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    • "Delayed kinetics of virus replication, dissemination of virus, and induction of innate immune responses following ocular compared with traditional intranasal inoculation shown in this study are in agreement with previous work which demonstrates that modulation of inoculation route and volume is sufficient to cause altered disease presentation and virus transmissibility in the ferret model (Belser et al., 2012; Bodewes et al., 2011; Gustin et al., 2011). Presence of both virus and proinflammatory cytokines in ocular tissue following intranasal inoculation in ferrets and elevated detection of viral and proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine transcript in the eye of ferrets inoculated with either H3N2 or H7N7 subtype viruses speaks to the capacity of multiple virus subtypes to use the eye to infect, even those not typically associated with an ocular tropism (Belser et al., 2013). Fig. 2. Detection of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA in ferret respiratory and ocular tissue following influenza virus infection. "
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