Association between common alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH) variants and schizophrenia and autism.
ABSTRACT Humans express at least seven alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoforms that are encoded by ADH gene cluster (ADH7-ADH1C-ADH1B-ADH1A-ADH6-ADH4-ADH5) at chromosome 4. ADHs are key catabolic enzymes for retinol and ethanol. The functional ADH variants (mostly rare) have been implicated in alcoholism risk. In addition to catalyzing the oxidation of retinol and ethanol, ADHs may be involved in the metabolic pathways of several neurotransmitters that are implicated in the neurobiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the associations between common ADH variants [minor allele frequency (MAF) >0.05] and 11 neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. A total of 50,063 subjects in 25 independent cohorts were analyzed. The entire ADH gene cluster was imputed across these 25 cohorts using the same reference panels. Association analyses were conducted, adjusting for multiple comparisons. We found 28 and 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), respectively, that were significantly associated with schizophrenia in African-Americans and autism in European-Americans after correction by false discovery rate (FDR) (q < 0.05); and 19 and 6 SNPs, respectively, that were significantly associated with these two disorders after region-wide correction by SNPSpD (8.9 × 10-5 ≤ p ≤ 0.0003 and 2.4 × 10-5 ≤ p ≤ 0.0003, respectively). No variants were significantly associated with the other nine neuropsychiatric disorders, including alcohol dependence. We concluded that common ADH variants conferred risk for both schizophrenia in African-Americans and autism in European-Americans.
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ABSTRACT: Several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) reported tens of risk genes for alcohol dependence, but most of them have not been replicated or confirmed by functional studies. The present study used a GWAS to search for novel, functional and replicable risk gene regions for alcohol dependence. Associations of all top-ranked SNPs identified in a discovery sample of 681 African-American (AA) cases with alcohol dependence and 508 AA controls were retested in a primary replication sample of 1,409 European-American (EA) cases and 1,518 EA controls. The replicable associations were then subjected to secondary replication in a sample of 6,438 Australian family subjects. A functional expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis of these replicable risk SNPs was followed-up in order to explore their cis-acting regulatory effects on gene expression. We found that within a 90 Mb region around PHF3-PTP4A1 locus in AAs, a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block in PHF3-PTP4A1 formed the only peak associated with alcohol dependence at p<10(-4). Within this block, 30 SNPs associated with alcohol dependence in AAs (1.6×10(-5)≤p≤0.050) were replicated in EAs (1.3×10(-3)≤p≤0.038), and 18 of them were also replicated in Australians (1.8×10(-3)≤p≤0.048). Most of these risk SNPs had strong cis-acting regulatory effects on PHF3-PTP4A1 mRNA expression across three HapMap samples. The distributions of -log(p) values for association and functional signals throughout this LD block were highly consistent across AAs, EAs, Australians and three HapMap samples. We conclude that the PHF3-PTP4A1 region appears to harbor a causal locus for alcohol dependence, and proteins encoded by PHF3 and/or PTP4A1 might play a functional role in the disorder.PLoS ONE 11/2011; 6(11):e26726. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have established an important role for rare genomic deletions and duplications in the etiology of schizophrenia. This research suggests that the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disorders includes a constellation of rare mutations in many different genes. Mutations that confer substantial risk for schizophrenia have been identified at several loci, most of which have also been implicated in other neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism. Genetic heterogeneity is a characteristic of schizophrenia; conversely, phenotypic heterogeneity is a characteristic of all schizophrenia-associated mutations. Both kinds of heterogeneity probably reflect the complexity of neurodevelopment. Research strategies must account for both genetic and clinical heterogeneity to identify the genes and pathways crucial for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders.Trends in Genetics 10/2009; 25(12):528-35. · 11.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The known Gly56Ala mutation in the serotonin transporter SERT (or 5-HTT), encoded by the SLC6A4 gene, causes increased serotonin reuptake and has been associated with autism and rigid-compulsive behavior. We report a patient with macrocephaly from birth, followed by hypotonia, developmental delay, ataxia and a diagnosis of atypical autism (PDD-NOS) in retrospect at the age of 4½years. Low levels of the serotonin end-metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5HIAA) in CSF were detected, and SLC6A4 gene analysis revealed the heterozygous Gly56Ala alteration and the homozygous 5-HTTLPR L/L promoter variant. These changes are reported to be responsible for elevated SERT activity and expression, suggesting that these alterations were responsible in our patient for low serotonin turnover in the central nervous system (CNS). Daily treatment with 5-hydroxytryptophan (and carbidopa) led to clinical improvement and normalization of 5HIAA, implying that brain serotonin turnover normalized. We speculate that the mutated 56Ala SERT transporter with elevated expression and basal activity for serotonin re-uptake is accompanied with serotonin accumulation within pre-synaptic axons and their vesicles in the CNS, resulting in a steady-state of lowered serotonin turnover and degradation by monoamine-oxidase (MAO) enzymes in pre-synaptic or neighboring cells.Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 03/2011; 102(3):368-73. · 2.83 Impact Factor