Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 Is a Dominant, Antimicrobial-Resistant Clonal Group Associated with Healthcare and Elderly Hosts
ABSTRACT (See the commentary by Rogers and Doi, on pages 370-372 .) Objective. To determine prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of infection due to Escherichia coli sequence type ST131. Design. Retrospective cohort. Setting. All healthcare settings in Olmsted County, Minnesota (eg, community hospital, tertiary care center, long-term care facilities, and ambulatory clinics). Patients. Ambulatory and hospitalized children and adults with extraintestinal E. coli isolates. Methods. We analyzed 299 consecutive, nonduplicate extraintestinal E. coli isolates submitted to Olmsted County laboratories in February and March 2011. ST131 was identified using single-nucleotide polymorphism polymerase chain reaction and further evaluated through pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Associated clinical data were abstracted through medical record review. Results. Most isolates were from urine specimens (90%), outpatients (68%), and community-associated infections (61%). ST131 accounted for 27% of isolates overall and for a larger proportion of those isolates resistant to fluoroquinolones (81%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (42%), gentamicin (79%), and ceftriaxone (50%). The prevalence of ST131 increased with age (accounting for 5% of isolates from those 11-20 years of age, 26% of isolates from those 51-60 years of age, and 50% of isolates from those 91-100 years of age). ST131 accounted for a greater proportion of healthcare-associated isolates (49%) than community-associated isolates (15%) and for fully 76% of E. coli isolates from long-term care facility (LTCF) residents. Multivariable predictors of ST131 carriage included older age, LTCF residence, previous urinary tract infection, high-complexity infection, and previous use of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and extended-spectrum cephalosporins. With multivariable adjustment, ST131-associated infection outcomes included receipt of more than 1 antibiotic (odds ratio [OR], 2.54 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-5.17]) and persistent or recurrent symptoms (OR, 2.53 [95% CI, 1.08-5.96]). Two globally predominant ST131 pulsotypes accounted for 45% of ST131 isolates. Conclusions. ST131 is a dominant, antimicrobial-resistant clonal group associated with healthcare settings, elderly hosts, and persistent or recurrent symptoms.
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ABSTRACT: Background Prevention of infection due to multi-drug resistant organisms is particularly challenging because of the spread of resistant bacteria beyond hospitals into the community, including nursing homes. This study aimed to identify risk factors for the acquisition of a multidrug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli in a local outbreak. Methods Study participants were all aged over 65 years. Cases had the MDR E. coli isolated from a routine urine sample, and controls had a urine sample submitted to the laboratory in the same time period but the MDR E. coli was not isolated. Information from clinical records was used to identify risk factors both in the hospital and the community setting for acquisition of the MDR E. coli. Results 76 cases and 156 controls were identified and included in the study. In a multivariate analysis, risk factors statistically significantly associated with acquisition of the MDR E. coli were female gender (adjusted OR 3.2; 95 % confidence interval 1.5–6.9), level of care (high dependency OR 7.5; 2.2–25.7) compared with living independently), and in hospital prescription of antimicrobials to which the MDR E. coli was resistant (OR 5.6; 2.5-12.9). Conclusions The major risk factors for the acquisition of a MDR E. coli were found to be residence in a nursing home and in-hospital prescription of antimicrobials to which the MDR E. coli was resistant. This emphasises that prevention of transmission of MDROs within a community needs to involve both hospitals and also other healthcare organizations, in this case nursing homes.BMC Infectious Diseases 06/2015; 15. DOI:10.1186/s12879-015-0974-0 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. Emerging data implicate long-term care facilities (LTCFs) as reservoirs of fluoroquinolone-resistant (FQ-R) Escherichia coli of sequence type 131 (ST131). We screened for ST131 among LTCF residents, characterized isolates molecularly, and identified risk factors for colonization. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a single perianal swab or stool sample per resident in 2 LTCFs in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from April to July 2013. Confirmed FQ-R E. coli isolates underwent polymerase chain reaction-based phylotyping, detection of ST131 and its H30 and H30-Rx subclones, extended virulence genotyping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. Epidemiological data were collected from medical records. Results. Of 133 fecal samples, 33 (25%) yielded FQ-R E. coli, 32 (97%) of which were ST131. The overall proportion with ST131 intestinal colonization was 32 of 133 (24%), which differed by facility: 17 of 41 (42%) in facility 1 vs 15 of 92 (16%) in facility 2 (P = .002). All ST131 isolates represented the H30 subclone, with virulence gene and PFGE profiles resembling those of previously described ST131 clinical isolates. By PFGE, certain isolates clustered both within and across LTCFs. Multivariable predictors of ST131 colonization included inability to sign consent (odds ratio [OR], 4.16 [P = .005]), decubitus ulcer (OR, 4.87 [ P = .04]), and fecal incontinence (OR, 2.59 [P = .06]). Conclusions. Approximately one fourth of LTCF residents carried FQ-R ST131 E. coli resembling ST131 clinical isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis suggested intra- and interfacility transmission. The identified risk factors suggest that LTCF residents who require increased nursing care are at greatest risk for ST131 colonization, possibly due to healthcare-associated transmission.01/2015; 2(1):ofv011-ofv011. DOI:10.1093/ofid/ofv011
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ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) and Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 emerged in the 2000s as important human pathogens, have spread extensively throughout the world, and are responsible for the rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance among E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains, respectively. E. coli ST131 causes extraintestinal infections and is often fluoroquinolone resistant and associated with extended-spectrum β-lactamase production, especially CTX-M-15. K. pneumoniae ST258 causes urinary and respiratory tract infections and is associated with carbapenemases, most often KPC-2 and KPC-3. The most prevalent lineage within ST131 is named fimH30 because it contains the H30 variant of the type 1 fimbrial adhesin gene, and recent molecular studies have demonstrated that this lineage emerged in the early 2000s and was then followed by the rapid expansion of its sublineages H30-R and H30-Rx. K. pneumoniae ST258 comprises 2 distinct lineages, namely clade I and clade II. Moreover, it seems that ST258 is a hybrid clone that was created by a large recombination event between ST11 and ST442. Epidemic plasmids with blaCTX-M and blaKPC belonging to incompatibility group F have contributed significantly to the success of these clones. E. coli ST131 and K. pneumoniae ST258 are the quintessential examples of international multidrug-resistant high-risk clones. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.Clinical microbiology reviews 07/2015; 28(3):565-591. DOI:10.1128/CMR.00116-14 · 16.00 Impact Factor