(See the commentary by Rogers and Doi, on pages 370-372 .) Objective. To determine prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of infection due to Escherichia coli sequence type ST131. Design. Retrospective cohort. Setting. All healthcare settings in Olmsted County, Minnesota (eg, community hospital, tertiary care center, long-term care facilities, and ambulatory clinics). Patients. Ambulatory and hospitalized children and adults with extraintestinal E. coli isolates. Methods. We analyzed 299 consecutive, nonduplicate extraintestinal E. coli isolates submitted to Olmsted County laboratories in February and March 2011. ST131 was identified using single-nucleotide polymorphism polymerase chain reaction and further evaluated through pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Associated clinical data were abstracted through medical record review. Results. Most isolates were from urine specimens (90%), outpatients (68%), and community-associated infections (61%). ST131 accounted for 27% of isolates overall and for a larger proportion of those isolates resistant to fluoroquinolones (81%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (42%), gentamicin (79%), and ceftriaxone (50%). The prevalence of ST131 increased with age (accounting for 5% of isolates from those 11-20 years of age, 26% of isolates from those 51-60 years of age, and 50% of isolates from those 91-100 years of age). ST131 accounted for a greater proportion of healthcare-associated isolates (49%) than community-associated isolates (15%) and for fully 76% of E. coli isolates from long-term care facility (LTCF) residents. Multivariable predictors of ST131 carriage included older age, LTCF residence, previous urinary tract infection, high-complexity infection, and previous use of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and extended-spectrum cephalosporins. With multivariable adjustment, ST131-associated infection outcomes included receipt of more than 1 antibiotic (odds ratio [OR], 2.54 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-5.17]) and persistent or recurrent symptoms (OR, 2.53 [95% CI, 1.08-5.96]). Two globally predominant ST131 pulsotypes accounted for 45% of ST131 isolates. Conclusions. ST131 is a dominant, antimicrobial-resistant clonal group associated with healthcare settings, elderly hosts, and persistent or recurrent symptoms.
"The extremely high ESBL carriage rates in some NHs deserve further investigations. In NH 9, extensive clonal spread of E. coli ST131, a well-known epidemic clone associated with health care facilities, was found
. These results will be published separately. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
We developed a standardised method to assess the quality of infection control in Dutch Nursing Home (NH), based on a cross-sectional survey that visualises the results. The method was called the Infection control RIsk Infection Scan (IRIS). We tested the applicability of this new tool in a multicentre surveillance executed June and July 2012.
The IRIS includes two patient outcome-variables, i.e. the prevalence of healthcare associated infections (HAI) and rectal carriage of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E); two patient-related risk factors, i.e. use of medical devices, and antimicrobial therapy; and three ward-related risk factors, i.e. environmental contamination, availability of local guidelines, and shortcomings in infection prevention preconditions. Results were categorised as low-, intermediate- and high risk, presented in an easy-to-read graphic risk spider-plot. This plot was given as feedback to management and healthcare workers of the NH.
Large differences were found among most the variables in the different NH. Common shortcomings were the availability of infection control guidelines and the level of environmental cleaning. Most striking differences were observed in the prevalence of ESBL carriage, ranged from zero to 20.6% (p < 0.001).
The IRIS provided a rapid and easy to understand assessment of the infection control situation of the participating NH. The results can be used to improve the quality of infection control based on the specific needs of a NH but needs further validation in future studies. Repeated measurement can determine the effectiveness of the interventions. This makes the IRIS a useful tool for quality systems.
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