Article

The antagonistic roles of PDGF and integrin αvβ3 in regulating ROS production at focal adhesions

Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
Biomaterials (Impact Factor: 8.31). 02/2013; 34(15). DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2013.01.092
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to play crucial roles in regulating various cellular functions, e.g. focal adhesion (FA) dynamics and cell migration upon growth factor stimulation. However, it is not clear how ROS are regulated at subcellular FA sites to impact cell migration. We have developed a biosensor capable of monitoring ROS production at FA sites in live cells with high sensitivity and specificity, utilizing fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The results revealed that platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) can induce ROS production at FA sites, which is mediated by Rac1 activation. In contrast, integrins, specifically integrin αvβ3, inhibits this local ROS production. The RhoA activity can mediate this inhibitory role of integrins in regulating ROS production. Therefore, PDGF and integrin αvβ3 coordinate to have an antagonistic effect in the ROS production at FA sites to regulate cell adhesion and migration.

1 Follower
 · 
94 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Melatonin, a well-known antioxidant, has been shown to possess anti-invasive properties for glioma. However, little is known about the effect of melatonin on glioma cell migration and invasion under hypoxia, which is a crucial microenvironment for tumor progress. In addition, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) are closely associated with cell migration and invasion. Therefore, we investigated the possible role of these kinases and its related signaling in the regulation of human U251 glioma cells behavior by melatonin under hypoxia. Methods: The abilities of migration and invasion of U251 glioma cells were determined by wound healing and transwell assay in vitro. The intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by using the fluorescent probe 6-carboxy-2′, 7′-dichorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Immunofluorescence experiments and western blotting analysis were used to detect the expression level of protein. Small interfering RNAs (siRNA) was used to silence specific gene expression. Results: The pharmacologic concentration (1 mM) of melatonin significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of human U251 glioma cells under hypoxia. The inhibitory effect of melatonin was accompanied with the reduced phosphorylation of FAK and Pyk2, and decreased expression of alpha v beta 3 (αvβ3) integrin. Additionally, inhibition of αvβ3 integrin by siRNA reduced the phosphorylation of FAK/Pyk2 and demonstrated the similar anti-tumor effects as melatonin, suggesting the involvement of αvβ3 integrin- FAK/Pyk2 pathway in the anti-migratory and anti-invasive effect of melatonin. It was also found that melatonin treatment decreased the ROS levels in U251 glioma cells cultured under hypoxia. ROS inhibitor apocynin not only inhibited αvβ3 integrin expression and the phosphorylation levels of FAK and Pyk2, but also suppressed the migratory and invasive capacity of U251 glioma cells under hypoxia. Conclusions: These results suggest that melatonin exerts anti-migratory and anti-invasive effects on glioma cells in response to hypoxia via ROS-αvβ3 integrin-FAK/Pyk2 signaling pathways. This provides evidence that melatonin may be a potential therapeutic molecule targeting the hypoxic microenvironment of glioma.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 05/2015; 13(95). DOI:10.1186/s12967-015-0454-8 · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bone cells exposed to real microgravity display alterations of their cytoskeleton and focal adhesions, two major mechanosensitive structures. These structures are controlled by small GTPases of the Ras homology (Rho) family. We investigated the effects of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 modulation of osteoblastic cells under microgravity conditions. Human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells silenced for RhoGTPases were cultured in the automated Biobox bioreactor (European Space Agency) aboard the Foton M3 satellite and compared to replicate ground-based controls. The cells were fixed after 69 h of microgravity exposure for postflight analysis of focal contacts, F-actin polymerization, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and matrix targeting. We found that RhoA silencing did not affect sensitivity to microgravity but that Rac1 and, to a lesser extent, Cdc42 abrogation was particularly efficient in counteracting the spaceflight-related reduction of the number of focal contacts [-50% in silenced, scrambled (SiScr) controls vs. -15% for SiRac1], the number of F-actin fibers (-60% in SiScr controls vs. -10% for SiRac1), and the depletion of matrix-bound VEGF (-40% in SiScr controls vs. -8% for SiRac1). Collectively, these data point out the role of the VEGF/Rho GTPase axis in mechanosensing and validate Rac1-mediated signaling pathways as potential targets for counteracting microgravity effects.-Guignandon, A., Faure, C., Neutelings, T., Rattner, A., Mineur, P., Linossier, M.-T., Laroche, N., Lambert, C., Deroanne, C., Nusgens, B., Demets, R., Colige, A., Vico, L. Rac1 GTPase silencing counteracts microgravity-induced effects on osteoblastic cells.
    The FASEB Journal 06/2014; DOI:10.1096/fj.14-249714 · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) are better known for their harmful effects, more recently, H2O2, one of the ROS, was also found to act as a secondary messenger. However, details of spatiotemporal organization of specific signaling pathways that H2O2 is involved in are currently missing. Here, we use single nanoparticle imaging to measure the local H2O2 concentration and reveal regulation of the ROS response dynamics and organization to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling. We demonstrate that H2O2 production is controlled by PDGFR kinase activity and EGFR transactivation, requires a persistent stimulation, and is regulated by membrane receptor diffusion. This temporal filtering is impaired in cancer cells, which may determine their pathological migration. H2O2 subcellular mapping reveals that an external PDGF gradient induces an amplification-free asymmetric H2O2 concentration profile. These results support a general model for the control of signal transduction based only on membrane receptor diffusion and second messenger degradation.
    Chemistry & biology 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.chembiol.2014.02.020 · 6.59 Impact Factor