Correlation Between Quantitative Measurements of Tear Film Lipid Layer Thickness and Meibomian Gland Loss in Patients With Obstructive Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Normal Controls
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between tear film lipid layer thickness and other objective measurements such as tear film break-up time (TBUT), upper and lower meibomian gland losses, and Schirmer 1 test in patients with obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and normal controls. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Thirty eyes of 30 patients with obstructive MGD and 25 eyes of 25 normal controls were enrolled. Lipid layer thickness was measured using an interferometer. Tear film stability and tear production were evaluated by TBUT and Schirmer 1 test. Upper and lower meibomian gland losses were evaluated using noncontact meibography. The correlations among variables were evaluated in the obstructive MGD group and the control group. RESULTS: TBUT was significantly shorter in the obstructive MGD group than in the control group (P < .001). Upper and lower meibomian gland losses were higher in the obstructive MGD group than in the control group (P < .001 and P < .001, respectively), and lipid layer thickness was significantly thicker in the control group than in the obstructive MGD group (P = .028). Lipid layer thickness was significantly negatively correlated with upper and lower meibomian gland losses in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Lipid layer thickness objectively measured with the interferometer was significantly thicker in the control group than in the obstructive MGD group. Lipid layer thickness was negatively correlated with upper and lower meibomian gland losses in the control group as well as in the obstructive MGD group.
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ABSTRACT: The LipiView interferometer (TearScience Inc, Morrisville, NC) is capable of delivering quantitative values of the tear-film lipid layer thickness (LLT). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between the LLT and other diagnostic criteria for Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). We performed a retrospective analysis of 110 patients (199 eyes) from our dry eye clinic. Subjective symptoms, break-up time (BUT), expressible Meibomian glands, and LLT were measured. There was a significant correlation between expressible Meibomian glands and LLT (r = 0.36, P < 0.0001). Also, a possible trend of inverse correlation between subjective symptoms (standard patient evaluation of eye dryness) and the LLT was observed; however, this was not significant (r = -0.13, P < 0.08). Analysis of the whole study collective revealed no correlation between the BUT and the LLT (r = 0.003, P = 0.97). A subgroup analysis of the patients with an LLT ≤ 60 showed a better correlation between the LLT and the BUT, which was marginally not significant (r = 0.21; P = 0.059). For a cut-off value of ≤75-nm LLT, we found a sensitivity of 65.8% and a specificity of 63.4% for the detection of an MGD. For a cut-off value of ≤60, the sensitivity was 47.9%, and the specificity was 90.2%. The positive correlation between the LLT and expressible meibomian glands found in this study suggests a higher probability of MGD in patients with a low LLT. This automated assessment of the LLT might be a suitable screening test for detecting MGD. However, further prospective studies are needed to confirm these results and to identify potential confounders.Cornea 10/2013; 32(12). DOI:10.1097/ICO.0b013e3182a7f3e1 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare meibomian gland loss (MGL) and expressed meibum grade between upper and lower eyelids in patients with obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and to evaluate the correlation between these 2 parameters and other clinical measurements. Twenty-six eyes of 26 patients with obstructive MGD were enrolled. Upper and lower MGLs were evaluated using noncontact meibography. Expressed meibum quality was assessed in 8 glands of the central third area of the upper and lower eyelids on a scale of 0 to 3 for each gland (total score range, 0-24). Tear film stability was evaluated based on tear break-up time (TBUT), and corneal staining was graded according to the National Eye Institute scale (range, 0-15). The mean MGL in the lower eyelids (24.1% ± 10.8%) was significantly greater than that of the upper eyelids (11.2% ± 5.2%) (P < 0.001). The mean expressed meibum grade in the lower eyelids (16.5 ± 5.1) was also significantly larger than that of the upper eyelids (11.2 ± 5.2) (P < 0.001). MGL was significantly correlated with expressed meibum grade in both eyelids (r = 0.451, P = 0.021 in the upper eyelids; r = 0.626, P = 0.001 in the lower eyelids). The meibum grades of both the upper and lower eyelids were negatively correlated with TBUT and positively correlated with corneal staining score. However, the MGL in both the eyelids was not correlated with TBUT or with corneal staining score. In patients with obstructive MGD, MGL and meibum grade in the lower eyelids were significantly greater than those of the upper eyelids. Although MGL and meibum quality showed a positive correlation with each other, TBUT and corneal staining score were significantly correlated with only meibum grade, and not with MGL.Cornea 03/2014; DOI:10.1097/ICO.0000000000000092 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose To compare the effectiveness of a single LipiFlow® treatment with combined lid warming and massage in patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Methods In this prospective, randomized, crossover, observer-masked clinical trial, subjects were randomized to receive either a single 12-min LipiFlow-LipiFlow Thermal Pulsation (LTP) system treatment or to perform combined twice-daily lid warming and massage for 3 months. All subjects were examined before, and 1 and 3 months after initiation of treatments. Investigated parameters included subjective symptoms, lipid layer thickness, meibomian gland assessment, tear break-up time, tear osmolarity, corneal and conjunctival staining, Schirmer test values, and tear meniscus height. Results A total of 31 subjects completed the 3-month follow-up. At 1 and 3 months, patients in the LipiFlow treatment group had a significant reduction in Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores compared with those in the lid-margin hygiene group. Both treatments produced a significant improvement in expressible meibomian glands compared to the baseline parameters, but no significant difference was noted between the two groups. The other investigated objective parameters did not show a significant difference. Conclusion Results of our study show that a single LipiFlow treatment is as least as effective as a 3-month, twice-daily lid margin hygiene regimen for MGD. However, the present study was observer-masked only, and therefore a placebo effect may have confounded any improvements in subjective symptoms and other parameters in both groups.The ocular surface 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jtos.2013.12.001 · 4.21 Impact Factor