“Screening, imaging, and image-guided biopsy techniques for breast cancer
ABSTRACT Mammography remains the primary modality for breast cancer diagnosis. Other imaging studies, most commonly ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging, are also used to characterize breast lesions, stage breast cancer, and aid in surgical planning. Although mammography is the only screening examination demonstrated to decrease breast cancer mortality in the general population, other imaging studies have been shown to be beneficial for screening high-risk patients. In the future, new technologies may also improve the sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer screening and detection.
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ABSTRACT: The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in breast carcinogenesis. Milk acts as an important microenvironment of breast cancer, but its role in breast carcinogenesis is largely unknown. Milk stasis may exist in the breast for a number of years after breastfeeding. In the present study, we reported the first microRNA (miRNA) profiling of milk from patients with milk stasis. We identified 266 known miRNAs and 271 novel miRNAs in 10 milk stasis only samples, 271 known miRNAs and 140 novel miRNAs in 10 milk stasis plus breast neoplasm samples by deep sequencing. miRNA profiles were different between the two groups. Furthermore, nine tumor suppressor miRNAs such as miR-29a, miR-146 and miR-223 were significantly downregulated, while seven oncogenic miRNAs such as miR-451, miR-486, miR-107, miR-92 and miR-10 were significantly upregulated in the milk of milk stasis plus neoplasm patients. Three of the identified miRNAs (miR-140, miR-21 and let-7a) were selected using real-time PCR, confirming that these miRNAs were highly expressed. The results also showed that the three miRNAs detected were more abundant in the milk than in the blood. In summary, the data suggested that miRNAs in milk from milk stasis patients may contribute to breast carcinogenesis and that they are more sensitive biomarkers for breast cancer than miRNAs in the blood.International Journal of Molecular Medicine 02/2014; 33(5). DOI:10.3892/ijmm.2014.1677 · 1.88 Impact Factor
- Advanced Healthcare Materials, 05/2014: pages 37-47; , ISBN: 9781118773598
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women worldwide. Prediction models stratify a woman's risk for developing cancer and can guide screening recommendations based on the presence of known and quantifiable hormonal, environmental, personal, or genetic risk factors. Mammography remains the mainstay breast cancer screening and detection but magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound have become useful diagnostic adjuncts in select patient populations. The management of breast cancer has seen much refinement with increased specialization and collaboration with multidisciplinary teams that include surgeons, oncologists, radiation oncologists, nurses, geneticist, reconstructive surgeons and patients. Evidence supports a less invasive surgical approach to the staging and management of the axilla in select patients. In the era of patient/tumor specific management, the advent of molecular and genomic profiling is a paradigm shift in the treatment of a biologically heterogenous disease.