Patients with HIV-1 and HTLV-2 coinfections often exhibit a clinical course similar to that seen in HIV-1 infected individuals who are long-term nonprogressors. These findings have been attributed in part to the ability of HTLV-2 to activate production of antiviral chemokines and to downregulate the CCR5 coreceptor on lymphocytes. To further investigate these observations, we tested the ability of recombinant Tax1 and Tax2 proteins to suppress HIV-1 viral replication in vitro. R5-tropic HIV-1 (NLAD8)-infected-PBMCs were treated daily with recombinant Tax1 and Tax2 proteins (dosage range 1-100 pM). Culture supernatants were collected at intervals from days 1 to 22 post-infection and assayed for levels of HIV-1 p24 antigen by ELISA. Treatment of PBMCs with Tax2 protein resulted in significant reduction in HIV-1 p24 antigen levels (p<0.05) at days 10, 14, and 18 post-infection compared to HIV-1-infected or mock-treated PBMCs. This was preceded by the detection of increased levels of CC-chemokines MIP-1α/CCL3, MIP-1β/CCL4, and RANTES/CCL5, on days 1-7 of infection. Similar, but less robust inhibition was observed in Tax1 treated PBMCs. These results support the contention that Tax1 and Tax2 play a role in generating antiviral responses against HIV-1 in vivo and in vitro.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human T cell leukemia viruses (HTLVs) are complex human retroviruses of the Deltaretrovirus genus. Four types have been identified thus far, with HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 much more prevalent than HTLV-3 or HTLV-4. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 possess strictly related genomic structures, but differ significantly in pathogenicity, as HTLV-1 is the causative agent of adult T cell leukemia and of HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, whereas HTLV-2 is not associated with neoplasia. HTLVs code for a protein named Tax that is responsible for enhancing viral expression and drives cell transformation. Much effort has been invested to dissect the impact of Tax on signal transduction pathways and to identify functional differences between the HTLV Tax proteins that may explain the distinct oncogenic potential of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2. This review summarizes our current knowledge of Tax-1 and Tax-2 with emphasis on their structure, role in activation of the NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa-B) pathway, and interactions with host factors.
Frontiers in Microbiology 09/2013; 4:271. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00271 · 3.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OX40 ligand (OX40L) co-stimulates and differentiates T cells via ligation of OX40 that is transiently induced on T cells upon activation, resulting in prolonged T cell survival and enhanced cytokine production by T cells. This view has led to the targeting of OX40 as a strategy to boost antigen specific T cells in the context of vaccination. In addition, the ligation of OX40 has also been shown to inhibit infection by CCR5-utilizing (R5) but not CXCR4-utilizing (X4) human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) via enhancement of production of CCR5-binding beta-chemokines. It was reasoned that human T cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-1) immortalized T cell lines that express high levels of OX40L could serve as an unique source of physiologically functional OX40L. The fact that HTLV-1+ T cell lines simultaneously also express high levels of OX40 suggested a potential limitation.
Results of our studies showed that HTLV-1+ T cell lines bound exogenous OX40 but not OX40L, indicating that HTLV-1+ T cell lines express an active form of OX40L but an inactive form of OX40. Anti-OX40 non-blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb), but not blocking mAb, stained HTLV-1+ T cell lines, suggesting that the OX40 might be saturated with endogenous OX40L. Functionality of the OX40L was confirmed by the fact that a paraformaldehyde (PFA)-fixed HTLV-1+ T cell lines inhibited the infection of autologous activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with R5 HIV-1 which was reversed by either anti-OX40L blocking mAb or a mixture of neutralizing mAbs against CCR5-binding beta-chemokines.
Altogether, these results demonstrated that autologous T cell lines immortalized by HTLV-1 can be utilized as a conventional source of physiologically functional OX40L.
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