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    ABSTRACT: Multiple alignment of 28 milk protein gene promoters belonging to seven protein superfamilies is described. In these gene promoters three groups of common motifs were found: group I--specific for all milk protein gene promoters; group II--specific only for one gene superfamily; and group III--motifs shared by several gene superfamilies. Motifs of group I and III do not have any preferential location in the promoters, while group II motifs are located in the proximal part, from -36 to -224. Milk protein gene promoters were analysed for presence of putative binding sites for nine transcription factors important for the expression of this group of genes. The transcription factor binding sites for C/EBP, CTF/NF1, MAF and MGF were found in all promoters investigated. The set of putative transcription factor binding sites or response elements for GRE, IRE, PMF, STR and YY1 is unique for every gene superfamily.
    Biosystems 02/1998; 45(1):29-44. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 5’-flanking regions (promoters) of the bovine $\alpha$s1-, $\alpha$s2- and $\beta$-casein genes were analysed for DNA sequence variants using PCR/RFLP in Polish Red (PR) and Black-and-White (BW) cattle. The polymorphic sites occurred at positions –1084 and –186 in the promoter region of the $\alpha$s2-casein gene and at –728 and –109 in the $\alpha$s1- and $\beta$-casein genes, respectively. These polymorphic sites were located within known potential regulatory sequences, suggesting an influence on the binding of transcription factors and expression of the bovine casein genes. Associations were found between various genotypes in the promoter region of the $\alpha$s2-casein gene and $\alpha$s1- and $\beta$-casein genotypes, thus showing the existence of intergenic haplotypes within the bovine casein locus. Milk proteins derived from cows of varying genotypes in the casein gene promoters were analysed using SDS-PAGE and HPLC techniques. It was shown that nucleotide sequence polymorphism in the promoter region of the bovine $\alpha$s2-casein gene was associated with various contents of $\alpha$s2- and $\beta$-casein in the milk. Effet du polymorphisme de la séquence nucléotidique dans les régions 5’‑non-codantes des gènes de la caséine bovine sur la teneur en caséine du lait de vache. Les variants de la séquence ADN dans les régions 5’-non codantes des gènes de caséines $\alpha$s1, $\alpha$s2 et $\beta$ des vaches de races pie-noir et rouge polonaises ont été analysés à l’aide de la méthode PCR/RFLP. Des polymorphismes ont été constatés dans les positions –1084 et –186 de la région promotrice du gène de la caséine $\alpha$s2 et dans les positions –728 et –109 des gènes de la caséine $\alpha$s1 et $\beta$, respectivement. Ces sites polymorphiques ont été localisés dans les séquences régulatrices potentielles, ce qui suggére leur influence sur la liaison des facteurs de transcription et l’expression des gènes de la caséine bovine. Des associations parmi les différents génotypes dans la région promotrice du gène de la caséine $\alpha$s2 et les génotypes de la caséine $\alpha$s1 et $\beta$ ont été établies. Cela signifie que les haplotypes préférés existent dans le locus des caséines bovines. Les protéines du lait de vache de génotypes différents dans les promoteurs du gène de la caséine ont été analysées à l’aide de la technique SDS-PAGE et HPLC. Il y a été demontré que le polymorphisme de la séquence de nucléotides dans la région de promoteur du gène bovin de la caséine est lié avec les différentes teneurs en caséines $\alpha$s2 et $\beta$ dans le lait.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/lait:2004030. 01/2004;
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    ABSTRACT: Allele frequencies of a polymorphism in the αS1-casein 5′ flanking region (CSN1S1-5′) were determined in 14 Central and Eastern European cattle breeds by single strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Allele frequencies ranged from 0.00 to 0.35 (allele 1), 0.08 to 0.91 (allele 2), 0.04 to 0.41 (allele 3) and from 0.00 to 0.16 (allele 4). Allele 5 was not found. Presence of allele 2 in all breeds highlights its probable wild type status. A loss of alleles and genotypes occurred in some breeds, but differentiation within the breed groups milk, beef and dual purpose was higher than between these groups. An analysis of the variance in a German Holstein granddaughter design with family and CSN1S1-5′ genotype as fixed effects revealed significant effects (P
    Livestock Production Science - LIVEST PROD SCI. 01/2005; 98(1):155-160.

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