Article

Alternative splicing of iodothyronine deiodinases in pituitary adenomas. Regulation by oncoprotein SF2/ASF

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, ul. Marymoncka 99/103, 01-813 Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address: .
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (Impact Factor: 4.66). 02/2013; 1832(6). DOI: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.02.013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Pituitary tumors belong to the group of most common neoplasms of the sellar region. Iodothyronine deiodinase types 1 (DIO1) and 2 (DIO2) are enzymes contributing to the levels of locally synthesized T3, a hormone regulating key physiological processes in the pituitary, including its development, cellular proliferation, and hormone secretion. Previous studies revealed that the expression of deiodinases in pituitary tumors is variable and, moreover, there is no correlation between mRNA and protein products of the particular gene, suggesting the potential role of posttranscriptional regulatory mechanisms. In this work we hypothesized that one of such mechanisms could be the alternative splicing. Therefore, we analyzed expression and sequences of DIO1 and DIO2 splicing variants in 30 pituitary adenomas and 9 non-tumorous pituitary samples. DIO2 mRNA was expressed as only two mRNA isoforms. In contrast, nine splice variants of DIO1 were identified. Among them, five were devoid of exon 3. In silico sequence analysis of DIO1 revealed multiple putative binding sites for splicing factor SF2/ASF, of which the top-ranked sites were located in exon 3. Silencing of SF2/ASF in pituitary tumor GH3 cells resulted in change of ratio between DIO1 isoforms with or without exon 3, favoring the expression of variants without exon 3. The expression of SF2/ASF mRNA in pituitary tumors was increased when compared with non-neoplastic control samples. In conclusion, we provide a new mechanism of posttranscriptional regulation of DIO1 and show deregulation of DIO1 expression in pituitary adenoma, possibly resulting from disturbed expression of SF2/ASF.

0 Followers
 · 
110 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The activity of T4 5'-monodeiodinase (5'D) in the pituitary was measured in 12 patients with pituitary adenoma (3 patients with acromegaly, 2 with prolactinoma, 1 with Cushing's disease, 1 with TSH-producing tumor, and 5 with nonfunctioning tumor) and, as a control, in a patient who died of parotid cancer. The pituitaries, obtained at operation or autopsy, were homogenized in 0.1 mol/L potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, and centrifuged at 800 x g. Supernatants were incubated with [125I]T4 and 20 mmol/L dithiothreitol (DTT) at 37C for 90 min. T4 5'-D was measured by the release of 125I- with the ion exchange method. The activity of T4 5'-D in the pituitaries from patients with prolactinoma and parotid cancer was dependent on protein concentration, incubation time, incubation temperature, and T4 concentration, and was labile to prior heating at 70 C for 30 min. T4 5'-D was not inhibited by 1 mmol/L propylthiouracil, but was inhibited 95% by 0.1 mmol/L iopanoic acid. The apparent Km and maximum velocity for T4 5'-D in homogenates of prolactinoma at 20 mmol/L DTT were 11 nmol/L and 1.54 pmol/mg protein.h, respectively. This reaction followed sequential-type reaction kinetics when the DTT concentration was varied. All other homogenates of pituitary tumors, except two nonfunctioning tumors, also demonstrated T4 5'-D activity. These results indicate that 1) the human pituitary express a low Km and PTU-insensitive T4 5'-D activity which is very similar to the type II enzyme activity in the rat pituitary; and 2) various types of pituitary tumor cells contain T4 5'-D activity.
    Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism 09/1990; 71(2):340-4. DOI:10.1210/jcem-71-2-340 · 6.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Expression of the growth hormone gene is due to the presence of the pituitary-specific transcription factor GHF-1/Pit-1. The action of the thyroid hormone T3 is mediated by nuclear receptors that regulate transcription by interaction with DNA elements located near promoters of the regulated genes. In this study, we show that T3 inhibits expression of the GHF-1/Pit-1 gene in rat pituitary GH4C1 cells by a novel mechanism that involves transcriptional interference with other regulatory elements of the promoter. Sequences between bp -90 and -200 of the rat GHF-1/Pit-1 gene which do not contain a hormone response element but contain two cyclic AMP-responsive elements mediate most of the repressive effect of T3. The hormone reduces basal levels of GHF-1/Pit-1 promoter activity and antagonizes its response to cyclic AMP and the tumor promoter TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate). A similar repression is found with a heterologous promoter that contains four copies of the cyclic AMP-responsive element motif. This regulation provides a novel example of the cross-talk between the thyroid hormone receptor and the signal transduction pathways used by different hormones and growth factors. Additionally, T3 interferes with in vitro binding of GHF-1/Pit-1 to a positive autoregulatory element located at bp -45 to -63 and has a detectable inhibitory effect on the activity of a promoter construct which extends to bp -90 of 5'-flanking DNA. The regulation of the transcription factor provides a novel example of negative transcriptional regulation by thyroid hormones.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 12/1995; 15(11):6322-30. · 5.04 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mice homozygous for a disruption in the alpha-subunit essential for TSH, LH, and FSH activity (alphaGsu-/-) exhibit hypothyroidism and hypogonadism similar to that observed in TSH receptor-deficient hypothyroid mice (hyt) and GnRH-deficient hypogonadal mutants (hpg). Although the five major hormone-producing cells of the anterior pituitary are present in alphaGsu-/- mice, the relative proportions of each cell type are altered dramatically. Thyrotropes exhibit hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and somatotropes and lactotropes are underrepresented. The size and number of gonadotropes in alphaGsu mutants are not remarkable in contrast to the hypertrophy characteristic of gonadectomized animals. The reduction in lactotropes is more severe in alphaGsu mutants (13-fold relative to wild-type) than in hyt or hpg mutants (4.5- and 1.5-fold, respectively). In addition, T4 replacement therapy of alphaGsu mutants restores lactotropes to near-normal levels, illustrating the importance of T4, but not alpha-subunit, for lactotrope proliferation and function. T4 replacement is permissive for gonadotrope hypertrophy in alphaGsu mutants, consistent with the role for T4 in the function of gonadotropes. This study reveals the importance of thyroid hormone in developing the appropriate proportions of anterior pituitary cell types.
    Endocrinology 05/1999; 140(4):1884-92. DOI:10.1210/endo.140.4.6627 · 4.64 Impact Factor
Show more

Preview

Download
0 Downloads
Available from