Emergence of Salsa and Guacamole as Frequent Vehicles of Foodborne Disease Outbreaks in the United States, 1973-2008.
ABSTRACT Abstract Fresh salsa and guacamole often contain diced raw produce, are often made in large batches, and are often poorly refrigerated, which may make them prone to contamination that can cause foodborne illness. The safety of salsa and guacamole is increasingly important as these foods gain popularity. Since 1973, local, state, and territorial health departments have voluntarily reported foodborne disease outbreaks to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System (FDOSS) using a standard reporting form. FDOSS used paper-based reporting for 1973-1997 and switched to electronic reporting for 1998-2008. We reviewed all reports of outbreaks during 1973-2008 in which salsa or guacamole was reported as a vehicle. We found 136 outbreaks in which salsa or guacamole was reported as a possible vehicle, which resulted in 5,658 illnesses. Of these 136 salsa- or guacamole-associated (SGA) outbreaks additional possible food vehicles were reported for 33 (24%) outbreaks. There were no SGA outbreaks reported before 1984. Among reported outbreaks, most were caused by norovirus (24%), nontyphoidal Salmonella (19%), and Shigella (7%). Eighty-four percent of outbreaks were caused by foods prepared in restaurants or delis; of these, 19% reported ill foodworkers, and 29% reported improper storage as possible contributing factors. Among all foodborne disease outbreaks with a reported food vehicle during 1984-1997, 26 (0.9%) of 2,966 outbreaks were SGA, and during 1998-2008, 110 (1.4%) of 7,738 outbreaks were SGA. The number of reported foodborne disease outbreaks attributable to salsa or guacamole increased in the United States from 1984 to 2008, especially in later years, and especially in restaurants. Fresh salsa and guacamole require careful preparation and storage. Focused prevention strategies should reduce the risk of illness and ensure that these foods are enjoyed safely.
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ABSTRACT: Noroviruses are now recognized as the major cause of acute gastroenteritis in the developed world, yet our ability to prevent and control infection is limited. Recent work has highlighted that, while typically an acute infection in the population, immunocompromised patients often experience long-term infections that may last many years. This cohort of patients and those regularly exposed to infectious material, for example, care workers and others, would benefit greatly from the development of a vaccine or antiviral therapy. While a licensed vaccine or antiviral has yet to be developed, work over the past 10 years in this area has intensified and trials with a vaccine candidate have proven promising. Numerous antiviral targets and small molecule inhibitors that have efficacy in cell culture have now been identified; however, further studies in this area are required in order to make these suitable for clinical use.Future Microbiology 11/2013; 8(11):1475-87. DOI:10.2217/fmb.13.109 · 3.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, a dramatic increase in the demand for ethnic foods in the United States has been observed. Interestingly, with their rise in popularity, more foodborne illness outbreaks associated with ethnic foods have also been reported. Despite a more than 200-y history of ethnic foods in the United States, there is a paucity of information about them. Furthermore, there is also a lack of research on food safety issues involving ethnic foods. Therefore, this paper provides a comprehensive overview of ethnic foods, including the history, types, popularity, characteristics, ingredients, and consumer attitudes toward them. Importantly, this review provides an analysis of the statistics of foodborne illness outbreaks associated with ethnic foods based on data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The breakdown of etiology of ethnic foods identified the number of total outbreaks, the causative microorganisms, the food vectors, and the locations where foodborne disease outbreaks have occurred. Also covered is a review of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system implementation, food safety training, and inspection score systems related to ethnic foods and how these can serve as effective tools for the prevention of foodborne illness outbreaks. This study contributes to the body of food safety literature by providing helpful information about ethnic foods in the United States.Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 01/2014; 13(1). DOI:10.1111/1541-4337.12044 · 3.54 Impact Factor
Article: Foodborne IllnessesAdvances in Pediatrics 08/2014; 61(1):287–312. DOI:10.1016/j.yapd.2014.04.003