Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Regulate Growth of Multiple Myeloma by Inhibiting T Cells in Bone Marrow.
ABSTRACT Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are one of the major factors limiting the immune response in cancer. However, their role in bone marrow (BM), the site of primary localization of multiple myeloma (MM), is poorly understood. In this study, we found a significant accumulation of CD11b+CD14-CD33+ immunosuppressive MDSC in BM of patients with newly diagnosed MM. To assess the possible role of MDSC in MM, we used immunocompetent mouse models. Immunosuppressive MDSC accumulated in BM of mice as early as 1 wk after tumor inoculation. S100A9 knockout (KO) mice, which are deficient in their ability to accumulate MDSC in tumor-bearing hosts, demonstrated reduced MDSC accumulation in BM after injection of MM cells compared with wild-type mice. Growth of the immunogenic MM cells was significantly reduced in S100A9KO mice. This effect was associated with the accumulation of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells in BM and spleens of S100A9KO mice, but not wild-type mice, and was abrogated by the administration of anti-CD8 Ab or adoptive transfer of MDSC. Thus, the accumulation of MDSC at early stages of MM plays a critical role in MM progression and suggests that MDSC can be considered a possible therapeutic target in this disease.
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ABSTRACT: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that accumulate during pathological conditions such as cancer and are associated with a poor clinical outcome. MDSC expansion hampers the host anti-tumor immune response by inhibition of T cell proliferation, cytokine secretion, and recruitment of regulatory T cells. In addition, MDSC exert non-immunological functions including the promotion of angiogenesis, tumor invasion, and metastasis. Recent years, MDSC are considered as a potential target in solid tumors and hematological malignancies to enhance the effects of currently used immune modulating agents. This review focuses on the characteristics, distribution, functions, cell-cell interactions, and targeting of MDSC in hematological malignancies including multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and leukemia.Frontiers in Oncology 12/2014; 4:349.
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ABSTRACT: Epigenetic modifications, like histone acetylation, are essential for regulating gene expression within cells. Cancer cells acquire pathological epigenetic modifications resulting in gene expression patterns that facilitate and sustain tumorigenesis. Epigenetic manipulation therefore is emerging as a novel targeted therapy for cancer. Histone Acetylases (HATs) and Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) regulate histone acetylation and hence gene expression. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are well known to affect cancer cell viability and biology and are already in use for the treatment of cancer patients. Immunotherapy can lead to clinical benefit in selected cancer patients, especially in patients with limited disease after tumor debulking. HDAC inhibitors can potentially synergize with immunotherapy by elimination of tumor cells. The direct effects of HDAC inhibitors on immune cell function, however, remain largely unexplored. Initial data have suggested HDAC inhibitors to be predominantly immunosuppressive, but more recent reports have challenged this view. In this review we will discuss the effects of HDAC inhibitors on tumor cells and different immune cell subsets, synergistic interactions and possible mechanisms. Finally, we will address future challenges and potential application of HDAC inhibitors in immunocombination therapy of cancer.Oncotarget 07/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immunosuppressive cells have been reported to play an important role in tumor-progression mainly because of their capability to promote immune-escape, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Among them, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been recently identified as immature myeloid cells, induced by tumor-associated inflammation, able to impair both innate and adaptive immunity. While murine MDSCs are usually identified by the expression of CD11b and Gr1, human MDSCs represent a more heterogeneous population characterized by the expression of CD33 and CD11b, low or no HLA-DR, and variable CD14 and CD15. In particular, the last two may alternatively identify monocyte-like or granulocyte-like MDSC subsets with different immunosuppressive properties. Recently, a substantial increase of MDSCs has been found in peripheral blood and bone marrow (BM) of multiple myeloma (MM) patients with a role in disease progression and/or drug resistance. Pre-clinical models recapitulating the complexity of the MM-related BM microenvironment (BMM) are major tools for the study of the interactions between MM cells and cells of the BMM (including MDSCs) and for the development of new agents targeting MM-associated immune-suppressive cells. This review will focus on current strategies for human MDSCs generation and investigation of their immunosuppressive function in vitro and in vivo, taking into account the relevant relationship occurring within the MM-BMM. We will then provide trends in MDSC-associated research and suggest potential application for the treatment of MM.Frontiers in oncology. 01/2014; 4:348.