Predictors of Phrase and Fluent Speech in Children With Autism and Severe Language Delay

Center for Autism and Related Disorders, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 03/2013; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2012-2221
Source: PubMed


To examine the prevalence and predictors of language attainment in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and severe language delay. We hypothesized greater autism symptomatology and lower intelligence among children who do not attain phrase/fluent speech, with nonverbal intelligence and social engagement emerging as the strongest predictors of outcome.

Data used for the current study were from 535 children with ASD who were at least 8 years of age (mean = 11.6 years, SD = 2.73 years) and who did not acquire phrase speech before age 4. Logistic and Cox proportionate hazards regression analyses examined predictors of phrase and fluent speech attainment and age at acquisition, respectively.

A total of 372 children (70%) attained phrase speech and 253 children (47%) attained fluent speech at or after age 4. No demographic or child psychiatric characteristics were associated with phrase speech attainment after age 4, whereas slightly older age and increased internalizing symptoms were associated with fluent speech. In the multivariate analyses, higher nonverbal IQ and less social impairment were both independently associated with the acquisition of phrase and fluent speech, as well as earlier age at acquisition. Stereotyped behavior/repetitive interests and sensory interests were not associated with delayed speech acquisition.

This study highlights that many severely language-delayed children in the present sample attained phrase or fluent speech at or after age 4 years. These data also implicate the importance of evaluating and considering nonverbal skills, both cognitive and social, when developing interventions and setting goals for language development.

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Available from: Pamela Mathy, Nov 18, 2015
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    • "The most consistently reported delays are in producing and expressing language, what is often referred to as productive or expressive language. For example, autistic children have been reported to be delayed in speaking their first words (Charman et al., 2003; Matson et al., 2010); speaking their first phrases (e.g., blue car, Grandgeorge et al., 2009; Kenworthy et al., 2012; Pry et al., 2011); and speaking their first grammatical utterances (e.g., go bye-bye) or sentences (Anderson et al., 2007; Wodka et al., 2013). Therefore, studies, which have measured the size of young, autistic children's expressive vocabularies at specific points during development, have often reported that young, autistic children have smaller expressive vocabularies than same-age typically developing children (Charman et al., 2003; Fulton & D'Entremont, 2013; Kover et al., 2013; Luyster et al., 2007; Luyster et al., 2008; Miniscalco et al., 2012; Sandercock, 2013; Stone & Yoder, 2001). "
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    • "A substantial proportion of children with ASD, however, have structural language attainments that are significantly below chronological or mental age expectations [31,35], while a significant minority fail to develop meaningful phrase speech [42]. While these children may have poorer social abilities, at least early in development, it is also possible that they experience co-occurring deficits in those aspects of perception, attention, phonological processing and learning that protect their ALN peers from more widespread LI. "
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