Medication reconciliation during transitions of care as a patient safety strategy: a systematic review.
ABSTRACT Medication reconciliation identifies and resolves unintentional discrepancies between patients' medication lists across transitions in care. The purpose of this review is to summarize evidence about the effectiveness of hospital-based medication reconciliation interventions. Searches encompassed MEDLINE through November 2012 and EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through July 2012. Eligible studies evaluated the effects of hospital-based medication reconciliation on unintentional discrepancies with nontrivial risks for harm to patients or 30-day postdischarge emergency department visits and readmission. Two reviewers evaluated study eligibility, abstracted data, and assessed study quality.Eighteen studies evaluating 20 interventions met the selection criteria. Pharmacists performed medication reconciliation in 17 of the 20 interventions. Most unintentional discrepancies identified had no clinical significance. Medication reconciliation alone probably does not reduce postdischarge hospital utilization but may do so when bundled with interventions aimed at improving care transitions.
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ABSTRACT: The field of clinical informatics has expanded substantially in the six decades since its inception. Early research focused on simple demonstrations that health information technology (HIT) such as electronic health records (EHRs), computerized provider order entry (CPOE), and clinical decision support (CDS) systems were feasible and potentially beneficial in clinical practice. In this review, we present recent evidence on clinical informatics in the United States covering three themes: 1) clinical informatics systems and interventions for providers, including EHRs, CPOE, CDS, and health information exchange; 2) consumer health informatics systems, including personal health records and web-based and mobile HIT; and 3) methods and governance for clinical informatics, including EHR usability; data mining, text mining, natural language processing, privacy, and security. Substantial progress has been made in demonstrating that various clinical informatics methodologies and applications improve the structure, process, and outcomes of various facets of the healthcare system. Over the coming years, much more will be expected from the field. As we move past the "early adopters" in Rogers' diffusion of innovations' curve through the "early majority" and into the "late majority," there will be a crucial need for new research methodologies and clinical applications that have been rigorously demonstrated to work (i.e., to improve health outcomes) in multiple settings with different types of patients and clinicians.Yearbook of medical informatics 01/2013; 8(1):13-9.
- BMJ quality & safety 04/2013; 22(4):273-277. DOI:10.1136/bmjqs-2013-001935 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Medication errors are an important cause of morbidity and mortality and adversely affect clinical outcomes. Prescribing errors constitute one type of medication error and occur particularly on admission to hospital; little is known about how they arise. This study investigated how doctors obtain the information necessary to prescribe on admission to hospital, and the number and potential impact of any errors. English teaching hospital-acute medical unit. Ethics approval was granted. Data were collected over four 1-week periods; November 2009, January 2010, April 2010 and April 2011. The patient admission process was directly observed, field notes were recorded using a standard form. Doctors participated in a structured interview; case notes of all patients admitted during study periods were reviewed. There were differences between perceived practice stated in interviews and actual practice observed. All 19 doctors interviewed indicated that they would sometimes or always use more than one source of information for a medication history; a single source was used in 31/68 observed cases. 7/12 doctors both observed and interviewed indicated that they would confirm medication with patients; observations showed they did so for only 2/12 patients. In 66/68 cases, the patient/carer was able to discuss medication, 14 were asked no medication-related questions. Of 688 medication charts reviewed, 318 (46.2%) had errors. A total of 851 errors were identified; 737/851 (86.6%) involved omission of a medicine; 94/737 (12.8%) of these were potentially significant. Although doctors know the importance of obtaining an accurate medication history and checking prescriptions with patients, they often fail to put this into practice, resulting in prescribing errors.BMJ quality & safety 08/2013; 23(1). DOI:10.1136/bmjqs-2013-001978 · 3.28 Impact Factor