Wilms' tumor or nephroblastoma is the most common malignant tumor stemming from kidney cells and second only to neuroblastoma when it comes to extracranial solid tumors in children. The results of nephroblastoma treatment are a perfect example of therapeutic success resulting from an interdisciplinary approach to the problem and the cooperation of pediatric surgeons, pediatric oncologists, pathologists, radiologists and radiotherapists leading to precise diagnoses and the selection of the optimal treatment. At the end of the sixties, international research teams began studying the best treatment for this tumor in children. In Europe, it was the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP), which has used the working name SIOP- RTSG (Renal Tumor Study Group - Group for the Study of Kidney tumors) since 2008 and in North America NWTS (National Wilms' Tumor Study - The National Committee for Research on Wilms' tumor). Summarizing the experience and knowledge on the treatment of nephroblastoma, it should be noted that, despite years of research and information exchange, uniform guidelines have not yet been developed, and there are still differences in treatment of this tumor. The biggest differences are between the "American" treatment recommended by the NWTS and the "European" by SIOP. In the first it is recommended to start treatment from the surgical removal of the tumor, even in the case of disseminated disease with the presence of metastases in the lungs. The treatment method is chosen by the institution managing the patient; for this reason on the American continent in Brazil, Wilms' tumor is treated according to the recommendations of "European" protocols (SIOP) and some institutions in Europe, for example in Italy, treat patients with nephroblastoma according to the "American" protocols recommended by the NWTS; until recently, focal disease was treated with primary nephrectomy in the UK.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A nephroblastoma is a tumor arising from metanephric blastema occurring in childhood. Among laboratory rodents, nephroblastoma has been frequently reported in rats, but it remains exceedingly rare in mice. The present work describes a nephroblastoma in a young mouse homozygous for the specific Trp53 R172H point mutation coupled with targeted deletion of the Pin1 gene. The affected kidney was effaced by a biphasic tumor with an epithelial component arranged in tubules surrounded by nests of blastemal cells. Immunohistochemically, the neoplasm was diffusely positive for Wilms' tumor antigen. The epithelial component expressed markers of renal tubular differentiation including wide-spectrum cytokeratin, E-cadherin and folate-binding protein. Furthermore, the neoplasm exhibited a high proliferative index and diffuse nucleocytoplasmic β-catenin expression. Based on histological and immunohistochemical features, a diagnosis of nephroblastoma potentially associated with Trp53 loss and oncogenic β-catenin activation has been proposed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma, featured by a high rate of spontaneous remissions, is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in infants and children. Numerous reports have demonstrated that MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in cancer progression, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. miR-421 functions as an onco-miR in some malignancies. However, its role in neuroblastoma remains poorly understood. In the present study, we found that miR-421 was increased in neuroblastoma tissues compared with matched adjacent normal tissues. Forced overexpression of miR-421 substantially enhanced cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, migration, and invasion of neuroblastoma cells. At the molecular level, tumor suppressor menin was found to be a target of miR-421. Furthermore, downregulation of menin by small interfering RNA oligos exhibited similar effects with overexpression of miR-421. On the other hand, overexpression of menin partially reversed the proliferative effects of miR-421 in neuroblastoma cells. Collectively, miR-421 may promote neuroblastoma cell growth and motility partially by targeting menin.
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