Advances and changes in the treatment of children with nephroblastoma

Department and Clinic of Pediatric Oncology, Haematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.
Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.1). 11/2012; 21(6):909-820.
Source: PubMed


Wilms' tumor or nephroblastoma is the most common malignant tumor stemming from kidney cells and second only to neuroblastoma when it comes to extracranial solid tumors in children. The results of nephroblastoma treatment are a perfect example of therapeutic success resulting from an interdisciplinary approach to the problem and the cooperation of pediatric surgeons, pediatric oncologists, pathologists, radiologists and radiotherapists leading to precise diagnoses and the selection of the optimal treatment. At the end of the sixties, international research teams began studying the best treatment for this tumor in children. In Europe, it was the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP), which has used the working name SIOP- RTSG (Renal Tumor Study Group - Group for the Study of Kidney tumors) since 2008 and in North America NWTS (National Wilms' Tumor Study - The National Committee for Research on Wilms' tumor). Summarizing the experience and knowledge on the treatment of nephroblastoma, it should be noted that, despite years of research and information exchange, uniform guidelines have not yet been developed, and there are still differences in treatment of this tumor. The biggest differences are between the "American" treatment recommended by the NWTS and the "European" by SIOP. In the first it is recommended to start treatment from the surgical removal of the tumor, even in the case of disseminated disease with the presence of metastases in the lungs. The treatment method is chosen by the institution managing the patient; for this reason on the American continent in Brazil, Wilms' tumor is treated according to the recommendations of "European" protocols (SIOP) and some institutions in Europe, for example in Italy, treat patients with nephroblastoma according to the "American" protocols recommended by the NWTS; until recently, focal disease was treated with primary nephrectomy in the UK.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common pediatric malignant primary renal tumor. One of the main drugs used in treatment is actinomycin-D. This was not readily available in Turkey at one time. Carboplatin was used in the primary treatment of WT in order to prevent delays in treatment. The aim of this study is to present the results of patients with WT receiving carboplatin or actinomycin-D therapy.ProcedureForty-eight consecutive patients with WT treated between July 2005 and December 2011 were included in this retrospective study. The patients were treated according to Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group guidelines. Nineteen patients were treated with actinomycin-D and 29 with carboplatin (500 mg/m2/dose). The two groups were then compared in terms of 2- and 4-year overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS) and disease-free survival (DFS).ResultsTwo- and four-year OS rates in the carboplatin group were 90.0% and 90.0%, compared to 100.0% and 88.0%, respectively, in the non-carboplatin group. Two- and four-year EFS levels in the carboplatin group were 92.0% and 88.0%, respectively, compared to 82.0% and 76.0% in the non-carboplatin group. Two-and four-year DFS levels in the carboplatin group were 92.0% and 86.0%, respectively, compared to 77.0% and 77.0% in the non-carboplatin group.Conclusions The findings show that the carboplatin can be used as an alternative drug in the primary treatment of WT in the event that actinomycin-D is unavailable or not tolerated. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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