The role of affinity in determining neutralizing potency of mAbs directed against viruses is not well understood. We investigated the kinetic, structural, and functional advantage conferred by individual naturally occurring somatic mutations in the Ab H chain V region of Fab19, a well-described neutralizing human mAb directed to respiratory syncytial virus. Comparison of the affinity-matured Ab Fab19 with recombinant Fab19 Abs that were variants containing reverted amino acids from the inferred unmutated ancestor sequence revealed the molecular basis for affinity maturation of this Ab. Enhanced binding was achieved through mutations in the third H chain CDR (HCDR3) that conferred a markedly faster on-rate and a desirable increase in antiviral neutralizing activity. In contrast, most somatic mutations in the HCDR1 and HCDR2 regions did not significantly enhance Ag binding or antiviral activity. We observed a direct relationship between the measured association rate (Kon) for F protein and antiviral activity. Modeling studies of the structure of the Ag-Ab complex suggested the HCDR3 loop interacts with the antigenic site A surface loop of the respiratory syncytial virus F protein, previously shown to contain the epitope for this Ab by experimentation. These studies define a direct relationship of affinity and neutralizing activity for a viral glycoprotein-specific human mAb.
"Other studies to optimize palivizumab binding of RSV are consistent with the association rate being the dominant factor in the ability of mAbs to neutralize RSV by interacting with the RSV F protein antigenic site A (Wu et al., 2005). We also have shown previously that a direct relationship exists between association rate and RSV-neutralizing activity of the human mAb Fab19 using germline reversion variations of that antibody to remove individual somatic mutations in the antibody that contribute to enhanced affinity and potency (Bates et al., 2013). Association rate is not necessarily the driving factor for all antibody mediated viral neutralization, however, as studies with other viral pathogens also have shown that virus inhibitory activity can be determined predominantly by the dissociation rate (Kallewaard et al., 2008; VanCott et al., 1994). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of binding kinetics in determining neutralizing potency for antiviral antibodies is poorly understood. While it is believed that increased steady-state affinity correlates positively with increased virus-neutralizing activity, the relationship between association or dissociation rate and neutralization potency is unclear. We investigated the effect of naturally-occurring antibody resistance mutations in the RSV F protein on the kinetics of binding to palivizumab. Escape from palivizumab-mediated neutralization of RSV occurred with reduced association rate (Kon) for binding to RSV F protein, while alteration of dissociation rate (Koff) did not significantly affect neutralizing activity. Interestingly, linkage of reduced Kon with reduced potency mirrored the effect of increased Kon found in a high-affinity enhanced potency palivizumab variant (motavizumab). These data suggest that association rate is the dominant factor driving neutralization potency for antibodies to RSV F protein antigenic site A and determines the potency of antibody somatic variants or efficiency of escape of viral glycoprotein variants.
Virology 04/2014; s 454–455(1):139–144. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2014.02.010 · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abs capable of effectively neutralizing HIV-1 generally exhibit very high levels of somatic hypermutation, both in their CDR and framework-variable regions. In many cases, full reversion of the Ab-framework mutations back to germline results in substantial to complete loss of HIV-1-neutralizing activity. However, it has been unclear whether all or most of the observed framework mutations would be necessary or whether a small subset of these mutations might be sufficient for broad and potent neutralization. To address this issue and to explore the dependence of neutralization activity on the level of somatic hypermutation in the Ab framework, we applied a computationally guided framework-reversion procedure to two broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 Abs, VRC01 and 10E8, which target two different HIV-1 sites of vulnerability. Ab variants in which up to 78% (38 of 49 for VRC01) and 89% (31 of 35 for 10E8) of framework mutations were reverted to germline retained breadth and potency within 3-fold of the mature Abs when evaluated on a panel of 21 diverse viral strains. Further, a VRC01 variant with an ∼50% framework-reverted L chain showed a 2-fold improvement in potency over the mature Ab. Our results indicate that only a small number of Ab-framework mutations may be sufficient for high breadth and potency of HIV-1 neutralization by Abs VRC01 and 10E8. Partial framework revertants of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing Abs may present advantages over their highly mutated counterparts as Ab therapeutics and as targets for immunogen design.
The Journal of Immunology 01/2014; 192(3). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1302515 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune-mediated lung injury is a hallmark of lower respiratory tract illness caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
STAT4 plays a critical role in CD4+ Th1 lineage differentiation and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) protein expression by CD4+ T cells. As CD4+ Th1 differentiation is associated with negative regulation of CD4+ Th2 and Th17 differentiation, we hypothesized that RSV infection of STAT4−/− mice would result in enhanced lung Th2 and Th17 inflammation and impaired lung Th1 inflammation compared to wild-type (WT)
mice. We performed primary and secondary RSV challenges in WT and STAT4−/− mice and used STAT1−/− mice as a positive control for the development of RSV-specific lung Th2 and Th17 inflammation during primary challenge. Primary
RSV challenge of STAT4−/− mice resulted in decreased T-bet and IFN-γ expression levels in CD4+ T cells compared to those of WT mice. Lung Th2 and Th17 inflammation did not develop in primary RSV-challenged STAT4−/− mice. Decreased IFN-γ expression by NK cells, CD4+ T cells, and CD8+ T cells was associated with attenuated weight loss and enhanced viral clearance with primary challenge in STAT4−/− mice compared to WT mice. Following secondary challenge, WT and STAT4−/− mice also did not develop lung Th2 or Th17 inflammation. In contrast to primary challenge, secondary RSV challenge of STAT4−/− mice resulted in enhanced weight loss, an increased lung IFN-γ expression level, and an increased lung RSV-specific CD8+ T cell response compared to those of WT mice. These data demonstrate that STAT4 regulates the RSV-specific CD8+ T cell response to secondary infection but does not independently regulate lung Th2 or Th17 immune responses to RSV challenge.
IMPORTANCE STAT4 is a protein critical for both innate and adaptive immune responses to viral infection. Our results show that STAT4
regulates the immune response to primary and secondary challenge with RSV but does not restrain RSV-induced lung Th2 or Th17
immune responses. These findings suggest that STAT4 expression may influence lung immunity and severity of illness following
primary and secondary RSV infections.
Journal of Virology 06/2014; 88(17). DOI:10.1128/JVI.03299-13 · 4.44 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.