How to measure RNA expression in rare senescent cells expressing any specific protein such as p16Ink4a

Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA.
Aging (Impact Factor: 6.43). 02/2013; 5(2).
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Here we describe a carefully optimized method for the preparation of high quality RNA by flow sorting of formaldehyde fixed senescent cells immunostained for any intracellular antigen. Replicative cellular senescence is a phenomenon of irreversible growth arrest triggered by the accumulation of a discrete number of cell divisions. The underlying cause of senescence due to replicative exhaustion is telomere shortening. We document here a spontaneous and apparently stochastic process that continuously generates senescent cells in cultures fully immortalized with telomerase. In the course of studying this phenomenon we developed a preparative fluorescence activated flow sorting method based on immunofluorescent staining of intracellular antigens that can also deliver RNA suitable for quantitative analysis of global gene expression. The protocols were developed using normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) and up to 5x107 cells could be conveniently processed in a single experiment. The methodology is based on formaldehyde crosslinking of cells, followed by permeabilization, antibody staining, flow sorting, reversal of the crosslinks, and recovery of the RNA. We explored key parameters such as crosslink reversal that affect the fragmentation of RNA. The recovered RNA is of high quality for downstream molecular applications based on short range sequence analysis, such qPCR, hybridization microarrays, and next generation sequencing. The RNA was analyzed by Affymetrix Gene Chip expression profiling and compared to RNA prepared by the direct lysis of cells. The correlation between the data sets was very high, indicating that the procedure does not introduce systematic changes in the mRNA transcriptome. The methods presented in this communication should be of interest to many investigators working in diverse model systems.

16 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transcriptional profiling is a key technique in the study of cell biology that is limited by the availability of reagents to uniquely identify specific cell types and isolate high quality RNA from them. We report a Method for Analyzing RNA following Intracellular Sorting (MARIS) that generates high quality RNA for transcriptome profiling following cellular fixation, intracellular immunofluorescent staining and FACS. MARIS can therefore be used to isolate high quality RNA from many otherwise inaccessible cell types simply based on immunofluorescent tagging of unique intracellular proteins. As proof of principle, we isolate RNA from sorted human embryonic stem cell-derived insulin-expressing cells as well as adult human β cells. MARIS is a basic molecular biology technique that could be used across several biological disciplines.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e89459. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089459 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cellular senescence is a stable proliferation arrest associated with an altered secretory pathway, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. However, cellular senescence is initiated by diverse molecular triggers, such as activated oncogenes and shortened telomeres, and is associated with varied and complex physiological endpoints, such as tumor suppression and tissue aging. The extent to which distinct triggers activate divergent modes of senescence that might be associated with different physiological endpoints is largely unknown. To begin to address this, we performed gene expression profiling to compare the senescence programs associated with two different modes of senescence, oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) and replicative senescence (RS [in part caused by shortened telomeres]). While both OIS and RS are associated with many common changes in gene expression compared to control proliferating cells, they also exhibit substantial differences. These results are discussed in light of potential physiological consequences, tumor suppression and aging.
    Age 03/2014; 36(3). DOI:10.1007/s11357-014-9637-0 · 3.45 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Cellular senescence happens in two steps: cell cycle arrest followed, or sometimes preceded, by gerogenic conversion (geroconversion). Geroconvesrion is a form of growth, a futile growth during cell cycle arrest. It converts reversible arrest to irreversible senescence. Geroconversion is driven by growth-promoting, mitogen-/nutrient-sensing pathways such as mTOR. Geroconversion leads to hyper-secretory, hypertrophic and pro-inflammatory cellular phenotypes, hyperfunctions and malfunctions. On organismal level, geroconversion leads to age-related diseases and death. Rapamycin, a gerosuppressant, extends life span in diverse species from yeast to mammals. Stress-and oncogene-induced accelerated senescence, replicative senescence in vitro and life-long cellular aging in vivo all can be described by two-step model.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 11/2014; 13(23). DOI:10.4161/15384101.2014.985507 · 4.57 Impact Factor
Show more

Preview (2 Sources)

16 Reads
Available from