Resolution of refractory thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) after successful treatment of a fulminant colitis due to Entamoeba histolytica.
Department of Pathology, Hospital Comarcal de Inca, Mallorca, Spain.Gastroenterología y Hepatología (Impact Factor: 0.83). 02/2013; DOI: 10.1016/j.gastrohep.2012.11.004
Article: Amoebiasis.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Amoebiasis is the second leading cause of death from parasitic disease worldwide. The causative protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, is a potent pathogen. Secreting proteinases that dissolve host tissues, killing host cells on contact, and engulfing red blood cells, E histolytica trophozoites invade the intestinal mucosa, causing amoebic colitis. In some cases amoebas breach the mucosal barrier and travel through the portal circulation to the liver, where they cause abscesses consisting of a few E histolytica trophozoites surrounding dead and dying hepatocytes and liquefied cellular debris. Amoebic liver abscesses grow inexorably and, at one time, were almost always fatal, but now even large abscesses can be cured by one dose of antibiotic. Evidence that what we thought was a single species based on morphology is, in fact, two genetically distinct species--now termed Entamoeba histolytica (the pathogen) and Entamoeba dispar (a commensal)--has turned conventional wisdom about the epidemiology and diagnosis of amoebiasis upside down. New models of disease have linked E histolytica induction of intestinal inflammation and hepatocyte programmed cell death to the pathogenesis of amoebic colitis and amoebic liver abscess.The Lancet 04/2003; 361(9362):1025-34. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Radical surgery for fulminant amoebic colitis leads to extremely high mortality; however, resective surgery is mandatory if a patient develops massive fecal peritonitis. We herein report an extremely rare case of fulminant amoebic colitis with multiple perforations, which was successfully treated by staged surgical procedures. A 48-year-old man who had been treated with predonisolone under a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis was admitted. Biopsy specimens from the colonic mucosa revealed Entamoeba histolytica. On the day of diagnosis, he developed severe abdominal pain and underwent emergency laparoptomy, showing total colonic gangrene with multiple perforations associated with massive fecal peritonitis. Subtotal colectomy, mucous fistula of the rectosigmoid, and ileostomy were performed. He recovered well although disseminated intravascular coagulopathy developed postoperatively. As the middle and upper part of rectum was found to be severely stenotic 4 months after surgery, we performed proctectomy, ileal pouch anal canal anastomosis, and diverting ileostomy, which was reversed 6 months later. The patient has been well with satisfactory anal function 37 months after the initial surgery. This case suggests that (1). early and accurate diagnosis of amoebiasis is important to avoid surgical intervention, and (2). staged surgery including total colectomy should be considered as one of the treatment choices even in patients with total necrotizing amoebic colitis.Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2003; 38(1):92-6. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In cases of fulminant amoebic colitis we have determined the interactions between Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites and immune cells in order to better understand the pathophysiology of amoebic colitis. Eleven specimens of amoebic colitis and five specimens of colon without amoebic lesions were studied. Trophozoites and immune cells were located by topographic stains, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Trophozoites were seen in both damaged and undamaged areas of the colonic mucosa. Specimens of fulminant amoebic colitis showed: (a) an increase in IgA+, IgG+ B cells and neutrophils; (b) a reduction in IgM+ B cells, CD8+ T cells, macrophages, eosinophils and mast cells; and (c) no change in the number of NK and CD4+ T cells. The cellular infiltrate in amoebic colitis may represent the combined effects of amoebic monocyte locomotion inhibitory factor and switching of IgM+ B cells to IgG+ and IgA+ plasma cells, induced by amoebic antigens. Tissue damage in the absence of trophozoites may result from ischaemia or host immune responses.Parasite Immunology 05/2007; 29(4):201-9. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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