Advances in the Multimodality Management of High-risk Prostate Cancer.
ABSTRACT Prostate cancer is a heterogeneous disease with marked variability in its natural progression and response to therapeutic interventions. It is the most commonly diagnosed visceral cancer of men living in western countries, yet it is life-threatening in only a minority of cases. Thus, appropriate patient selection for treatment based on tumor as well as patient characteristics is essential to achieve optimal outcomes. The combination of early cancer detection and technical improvements in local treatment has led to a reduction in disease burden and an increase in cancer survivorship. However, treatment failure remains common among high-risk cases.
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ABSTRACT: Interstitial radiation (implant) therapy is used to treat clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate, but how it compares with other treatments is not known. To estimate control of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after radical prostatectomy (RP), external beam radiation (RT), or implant with or without neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. Retrospective cohort study of outcome data compared using Cox regression multivariable analyses. A total of 1872 men treated between January 1989 and October 1997 with an RP (n = 888) or implant with or without neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (n = 218) at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, or RT (n = 766) at the Joint Center for Radiation Therapy, Boston, Mass, were enrolled. Actuarial freedom from PSA failure (defined as PSA outcome). The relative risk (RR) of PSA failure in low-risk patients (stage T1c, T2a and PSA level < or =10 ng/mL and Gleason score < or =6) treated using RT, implant plus androgen deprivation therapy, or implant therapy was 1.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-2.7), 0.5 (95% CI, 0.1-1.9), and 1.1 (95% CI, 0.3-3.6), respectively, compared with those patients treated with RP. The RRs of PSA failure in the intermediate-risk patients (stage T2b or Gleason score of 7 or PSA level >10 and < or =20 ng/mL) and high-risk patients (stage T2c or PSA level >20 ng/mL or Gleason score > or =8) treated with implant compared with RP were 3.1 (95% CI, 1.5-6.1) and 3.0 (95% CI, 1.8-5.0), respectively. The addition of androgen deprivation to implant therapy did not improve PSA outcome in high-risk patients but resulted in a PSA outcome that was not statistically different compared with the results obtained using RP or RT in intermediate-risk patients. These results were unchanged when patients were stratified using the traditional rankings of biopsy Gleason scores of 2 through 4 vs 5 through 6 vs 7 vs 8 through 10. Low-risk patients had estimates of 5-year PSA outcome after treatment with RP, RT, or implant with or without neoadjuvant androgen deprivation that were not statistically different, whereas intermediate- and high-risk patients treated with RP or RT did better then those treated by implant. Prospective randomized trials are needed to verify these findings.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 10/1998; 280(11):969-74. DOI:10.1016/S0022-5347(01)61700-2 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In men who develop an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen level (PSA) after having undergone a radical prostatectomy, the natural history of progression to distant metastases and death due to prostate cancer is unknown. To characterize the time course of disease progression in men with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. A retrospective review of a large surgical series with median (SD) follow-up of 5.3 (3.7) years (range, 0.5-15 years) between April 1982 and April 1997. An urban academic tertiary referral institution. A total of 1997 men undergoing radical prostatectomy, by a single surgeon, for clinically localized prostate cancer. None received neoadjuvant therapy, and none had received adjuvant hormonal therapy prior to documented distant metastases. After surgery, men were followed up with PSA assays and digital rectal examinations every 3 months for the first year, semiannually for the second year, and annually thereafter. A detectable serum PSA level of at least 0.2 ng/mL was evidence of biochemical recurrence. Distant metastases were diagnosed by radionuclide bone scan, chest radiograph, or other body imaging, which was performed at the time of biochemical recurrence and annually thereafter. The actuarial metastasis-free survival for all 1997 men was 82% (95% confidence interval, 76%-88%) at 15 years after surgery. Of the 1997 men, 315 (15%) developed biochemical PSA level elevation. Eleven of these underwent early hormone therapy after the recurrence and are not included in the study. Of the remaining 304 men, 103 (34%) developed metastatic disease within the study period. The median actuarial time to metastases was 8 years from the time of PSA level elevation. In survival analysis, time to biochemical progression (P<.001), Gleason score (P<.001), and PSA doubling time (P<.001) were predictive of the probability and time to the development of metastatic disease. An algorithm combining these parameters was constructed to stratify men into risk groups. Once men developed metastatic disease, the median actuarial time to death was 5 years. The time interval from surgery to the appearance of metastatic disease was predictive of time until death (P<.02). Several clinical parameters help predict the outcomes of men with PSA elevation after radical prostatectomy. These data may be useful in the design of clinical trials, the identification of men for enrollment into experimental protocols, and counseling men regarding the timing of administration of adjuvant therapies.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/1999; 281(17):1591-7. DOI:10.1097/00005392-199910000-00103 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In a large series of 2404 men with a mean follow-up of 6.3 plus or minus 4.2 years (range, 1-17) after anatomic RRP for clinically localized prostate cancer, 412 men (17%) have recurred. A detectable PSA was the only evidence of recurrence in 9.7%, whereas 1.7% and 5.8% had local recurrence and distant metastasis, respectively. The overall actuarial 5-, 10-, and 15-year recurrence-free survival rates for these men were 84%, 74%, and 66%, respectively. As demonstrated in the authors' previous reports, the actuarial likelihood of a postoperative recurrence increased with advancing clinical stage, Gleason-score, preoperative PSA level, and pathologic stage. Subdivision of men with Gleason 7 tumors resulted in better stratification. There was a similar actuarial likelihood of postoperative recurrence for men with Gleason 4 + 3 and Gleason score 8 to 10 disease. The actuarial rate of recurrence of tumor for men with Gleason 3 + 4 disease was statistically different from the rate for men with Gleason score 6 or Gleason 4 + 3 disease. The overall actuarial metastasis-free survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 96%, 90%, and 82%, respectively. The overall actuarial cancer-specific survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 99%, 96%, and 90%, respectively. This study provides long-term outcome of patients with clinically localized cancer who underwent RRP between 1982 and 1999. Recognizing that this long-term study includes many patients with more advanced disease diagnosed before the PSA era, caution must be exercised in comparing these results with the outcomes for cohorts of patients treated since 1989. Anatomic RRP is an effective way to manage clinically localized prostate cancer. Excellent long-term results can be obtained with RRP for early stage disease. The proportion of men with early stage prostate cancer will continue to increase with wide use of serum PSA testing and digital rectal examination.Urologic Clinics of North America 09/2001; 28(3):555-65. DOI:10.1016/S0094-0143(05)70163-4 · 1.35 Impact Factor