Regulation of WASH-Dependent Actin Polymerization and Protein Trafficking by Ubiquitination

Department of Physiology, UT Southwestern Dallas, TX 75390, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 33.12). 02/2013; 152(5):1051-64. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.01.051
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Endosomal protein trafficking is an essential cellular process that is deregulated in several diseases and targeted by pathogens. Here, we describe a role for ubiquitination in this process. We find that the E3 RING ubiquitin ligase, MAGE-L2-TRIM27, localizes to endosomes through interactions with the retromer complex. Knockdown of MAGE-L2-TRIM27 or the Ube2O E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme significantly impaired retromer-mediated transport. We further demonstrate that MAGE-L2-TRIM27 ubiquitin ligase activity is required for nucleation of endosomal F-actin by the WASH regulatory complex, a known regulator of retromer-mediated transport. Mechanistic studies showed that MAGE-L2-TRIM27 facilitates K63-linked ubiquitination of WASH K220. Significantly, disruption of WASH ubiquitination impaired endosomal F-actin nucleation and retromer-dependent transport. These findings provide a cellular and molecular function for MAGE-L2-TRIM27 in retrograde transport, including an unappreciated role of K63-linked ubiquitination and identification of an activating signal of the WASH regulatory complex.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The evolutionarily conserved endosomal retromer complex rescues transmembrane proteins from the lysosomal degradative pathway and facilitates their recycling to other cellular compartments. Retromer functions in conjunction with numerous associated proteins, including select members of the sorting nexin (SNX) family. In the present article, we review the molecular architecture and cellular roles of retromer and its various functional partners. The endosomal network is a crucial hub in the trafficking of proteins through the cellular endomembrane system. Transmembrane proteins, here termed cargos, enter endosomes by endocytosis from the plasma membrane or by trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Endosomal cargo proteins face one of the two fates: retention in the endosome, leading ultimately to lysosomal degradation or export from the endosome for reuse ('recycling'). The balance of protein degradation and recycling is crucial to cellular homoeostasis; inappropriate sorting of proteins to either fate leads to cellular dysfunction. Retromer is an endosome-membrane-associated protein complex central to the recycling of many cargo proteins from endosomes, both to the TGN and the plasma membrane (and other specialized compartments, e.g. lysosome-related organelles). Retromer function is reliant on a number of proteins from the SNX family. In the present article, we discuss this inter-relationship and how defects in retromer function are increasingly being linked with human disease.
    Biochemical Society Transactions 02/2015; 43(1):33-47. DOI:10.1042/BST20140290 · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) is a major actor of muscle wasting during various physio-pathological situations. In the past 15 years, increasing amounts of data have depicted a picture, although incomplete, of the mechanisms implicated in myofibrillar protein degradation, from the discovery of muscle-specific E3 ligases to the identification of the signaling pathways involved. The targeting specificity of the UPS relies on the capacity of the system to first recognize and then label the proteins to be degraded with a poly-ubiquitin (Ub) chain. It is fairly assumed that the recognition of the substrate is accomplished by the numerous E3 ligases present in mammalian cells. However, most E3s do not possess any catalytic activity and E2 enzymes may be more than simple Ub-providers for E3s since they are probably important actors in the ubiquitination machinery. Surprisingly, most authors have tried to characterize E3 substrates, but the exact role of E2s in muscle protein degradation is largely unknown. A very limited number of the 35 E2s described in humans have been studied in muscle protein breakdown experiments and the vast majority of studies were only descriptive. We review here the role of E2 enzymes in skeletal muscle and the difficulties linked to their study and provide future directions for the identification of muscle E2s responsible for the ubiquitination of contractile proteins.
    Frontiers in Physiology 03/2015; 6:59. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2015.00059
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Modification by Lys63-linked ubiquitin (UbK63) chains is the second most abundant form of ubiquitylation. In addition to their role in DNA repair or kinase activation, UbK63 chains interfere with multiple steps of intracellular trafficking. UbK63 chains decorate many plasma membrane proteins, providing a signal that is often, but not always, required for their internalization. In yeast, plants, worms and mammals, this same modification appears to be critical for efficient sorting to multivesicular bodies and subsequent lysosomal degradation. UbK63 chains are also one of the modifications involved in various forms of autophagy (mitophagy, xenophagy, or aggrephagy). Here, in the context of trafficking, we report recent structural studies investigating UbK63 chains assembly by various E2/E3 pairs, disassembly by deubiquitylases, and specifically recognition as sorting signals by receptors carrying Ub-binding domains, often acting in tandem. In addition, we address emerging and unanticipated roles of UbK63 chains in various recycling pathways that function by activating nucleators required for actin polymerization, as well as in the transient recruitment of signaling molecules at the plasma or ER membrane. In this review, we describe recent advances that converge to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the wealth of trafficking functions of UbK63 chains.
    11/2014; 3:1027-1088. DOI:10.3390/cells3041027