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Available from: Abhishek Gupta, Sep 27, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Substance P (SP) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) play important roles in different inflammatory conditions and are both expressed in human monocytes and macrophages. However, it is not known whether or not they interact. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of SP on PPAR-gamma protein expression in monocytes and macrophages (MDMs: monocyte-derived macrophages) from healthy smokers and non-smokers. PPAR-gamma protein was detected by western blot and quantified by calculating the ratio between PPAR-gamma and beta-actin protein expression. Constitutive tachykinin NK(1) receptor expression in monocytes and MDMs from healthy smokers and non-smokers was evaluated by western blot. Cytokine release was evaluated by ELISA. In the concentration range 10(-10)-10(-6) M, SP stimulated PPAR-gamma protein expression in monocytes and MDMs, being more effective in cells from healthy smokers. Moreover, in these cells there was a constitutively increased expression of NK(1) receptors. SP-induced expression of the PPAR-gamma protein was receptor-mediated, as it was reproduced by the NK(1) selective agonist [Sar(9)Met(O(2))(11)]SP and reversed by the competitive NK(1) antagonist GR71251. SP-induced maximal effects were similar to those evoked by 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2); an endogenous PPAR-gamma agonist, and were significantly reduced by a PPAR-gamma antagonist. NK(1) and PPAR-gamma agonists exerted opposite effects on TNF-alpha release from monocytes and MDMs. Enhancement of PPAR-gamma protein expression represents a novel activity for SP, which could contribute to a range of chronic inflammatory disorders.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 06/2008; 154(1):144-52. DOI:10.1038/bjp.2008.50 · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors report plasma substance P levels in obese children and healthy controls. Obese children showed significantly higher substance P values in comparison with controls. A positive correlation was found between substance P levels and percentage of weight increment.
    Functional neurology 01/1989; 4(2):183-4. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is associated with serious lung disease in infants and immunocompromised individuals and is linked to development of asthma. In mice, acute RSV infection causes airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and mucus hypersecretion. Infected cells induce complement activation, producing the anaphylatoxin C3a. In this paper, we show RSV-infected wild-type mice produce Th17 cytokines, a response not previously associated with viral infections. Mice deficient in the C3aR fail to develop AHR following acute RSV infection, and production of Th17 cytokines was significantly attenuated. Tachykinin production also has been implicated in RSV pathophysiology, and tachykinin receptor-null mice were similarly protected from developing AHR. These animals were also deficient in production of Th17 cytokines. Tachykinin release was absent in mice deficient in C3aR, whereas C3a levels were unchanged in tachykinin receptor-null animals. Thus, our data reveal a crucial sequence following acute RSV infection where initial C3a production causes tachykinin release, followed by activation of the IL-17A pathway. Deficiency of either receptor affords protection from AHR, identifying two potential therapeutic targets.
    The Journal of Immunology 09/2011; 187(8):4245-55. DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1101789 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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