19-Acetoxychavicol Acetate Isolated from Alpinia
galanga Ameliorates Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma in Mice
Joung-Wook Seo1,2., Soon-Chang Cho3., Sang-Joon Park4, Eun-Ji Lee5, Jong-Hwa Lee1, Sang-Seop Han6,
Byeong Sik Pyo7, Dae-Hun Park7*, Bong-Hee Kim2*
1Korea Institute of Toxicology, Daejeon, Korea, 2College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea, 3Center for Senior Industry, Youngdong
University, Yeongdong, Korea, 4College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, 5College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National
University, Daejeon, Korea, 6Konyang University, Daejeon, Korea, 7Dongshin University, Naju, Korea
The World Health Organization reports that 235 million people are currently affected by asthma. This disease is associated
with an imbalance of Th1 and Th2 cells, which results in the upregulation of cytokines that promote chronic inflammation of
the respiratory system. The inflammatory response causes airway obstruction and can ultimately result in death. In this
study we evaluated the effect of 19-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) isolated from Alpinia galanga rhizomes in a mouse model
of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. To generate the mouse model, BALB/c mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal
injection of OVA and then challenged with OVA inhalation for 5 days. Mice in the vehicle control group were sensitized with
OVA but not challenged with OVA. Treatment groups received dexamethasone, 25 mg/kg/day ACA, or 50 mg/kg/day ACA
for 5 days. Asthma-related inflammation was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cell counts and histopathological and
immunohistochemical analysis of lung tissues. Our results showed that ACA reduced the infiltration of white blood cells
(especially eosinophils) and the level of IgE in the lungs of mice challenged with OVA and suppressed histopathological
changes such as airway remodeling, goblet-cell hyperplasia, eosinophil infiltration, and glycoprotein secretion. In addition,
ACA inhibited expression of the Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, and Th1 cytokines IL-12a and interferon-c.
Because asthmatic reactions are mediated by diverse immune and inflammatory pathways, ACA shows promise as an
antiasthmatic drug candidate.
Citation: Seo J-W, Cho S-C, Park S-J, Lee E-J, Lee J-H, et al. (2013) 19-Acetoxychavicol Acetate Isolated from Alpinia galanga Ameliorates Ovalbumin-Induced
Asthma in Mice. PLoS ONE 8(2): e56447. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0056447
Editor: Thomas H. Thatcher, University of Rochester Medical Center, United States of America
Received July 31, 2012; Accepted January 11, 2013; Published February 25, 2013
Copyright: ? 2013 Seo et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funding: This work was supported by a grant (Code No. 2009-0073116) from National Research Foundation of Korea and a grant (Code No. C0018727) from
Business for Cooperative R&D between Industry, Academy, and Research Institute funded Korea Small and Medium Business Administration. The funders had no
role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
* E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (DHP); email@example.com (BHK)
. These authors contributed equally to this work.
The World Health Organization reports that 235 million
people are affected by asthma, which is the most common chronic
disease among children. Triggers for asthma include indoor
allergens (e.g., pet dander and dust mites in bedding, carpets, and
stuffed furniture), outdoor allergens (e.g., pollens and molds),
tobacco smoke, chemical irritants, and air pollution. Asthma is a
serious disease that can result in death if not treated properly .
This chronic inflammatory lung disease causes bronchoconstric-
tion, bronchial mucosal thickening from edema, eosinophilic
infiltration, bronchial wall remodeling, and excessive mucus
production, and can ultimately lead to airway obstruction [2,3].
Asthma is an immune-mediated disease in which T helper (Th)
cells play an important role. Mouse Th clones can be divided into
two subsets according to cytokine secretion patterns : Th1 cells
secret interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-c, and Th2 cells
secrete IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5. In addition, Th2 cells promote B cell
differentiation and class switching from Ig G to Ig E . The
cytokine IL-6 regulates the functions of CD4 T cells and mediates
asthma induction , whereas IL-12 regulates the Th1/Th2
balance  and promotes IFN-c production . IFN-c is related
to the persistence and severity of asthma . IL-4 and IL-13,
which are key cytokines in the pathogenesis of asthma , are
involved in airway remodeling, inflammatory processes, airway
hyperresponsiveness, goblet-cell hyperplasia, eosinophil infiltra-
tion, mucus hypersecretion, and B cell activation [11,12,13,14].
IL-5 regulates the development, activation, migration, and survival
of eosinophils, which are characteristic features of asthma .
Asthma is controlled with bronchodilators, corticosteroids,
leukotriene modifiers, theophylline, and/or anti-IgE therapy;
however, none of these treatments are curative . Inhaled
corticosteroids are commonly used , but in addition to their
side effects, these drugs tend to reduce glucocorticoid receptor-
binding affinity and T-cell response . Therefore, alternative
therapies are sought from traditional medicines or other natural
products that have therapeutic effects in respiratory disorders.
Alpinia galangal is a member of the ginger family but differs from
Zingiber officinale, which is commonly used in Western cuisine.
Alpinia galanga rhizomes have been traditionally used to treat
bronchial problems in tropical areas of south and east India. This
rhizome has also been reported to be useful as a carminative and
as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation, stomato-
PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org1February 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 2 | e56447
pathy, pharyngopathy, cough, asthma, hiccough, dyspepsia,
stomachalgia, obesity, diabetes, cephalalgia, tubercular glands,
and intermittent fevers . Biological properties of A. galanga and
its constituents include anticarcinogenic effects , chemopre-
vention through COX-2 suppression , antioxidative actions
, and inhibition of TNF-a and IL-4 . In addition,
hydroxychavicol acetate, which is one of the constituents of A.
galanga, increases IL-2 production and attenuates IFN-c expression
Although studies have reported that A. galanga exerts various
biological effects and modulates inflammation, no studies have
evaluated the ability of A. galanga to cure or completely control
asthma. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the effect of 19-
acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA; 25 or 50 mg/kg/day) isolated from
A. galanga on asthma using a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-
ACA reduced the number of eosinophils and other white
blood cells and the level of IgE in bronchoalveolar lavage
In the mouse model of OVA-induced asthma, the number of
white blood cells (WBCs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF)
was significantly increased compared with that of mice treated
with vehicle alone (vehicle control) (Figure 1a). In addition, ACA
dose-dependently decreased the number of WBCs, and mice
treated with 50 mg/kg/day ACA had WBC counts similar to
those of the vehicle-treated and dexamethasone-treated controls.
Similarly to the result of WBCs counting in BALF, the level of IgE
in ACA treated groups decreased although that of dexamethasone-
treated controls was not suppressed (Figure 1b).
Asthma is characterized by eosinophilia. Accordingly, the
number of eosinophils in BALF was significantly increased in the
OVA-induced asthma model (Table 1). Our results showed that
both doses of ACA (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) suppressed eosinophil
infiltration. In particular, the number of eosinophils in the BALF
of mice treated with 50 mg/kg/day ACA was similar to that of
dexamethasone-treated mice. Lymphocyte levels were also elevat-
ed in the BALF of mice with OVA-induced asthma. Although the
lower dose of ACA did not reduce this effect, the number of
lymphocytes recovered in the BALF of mice treated with 50 mg/
kg/day ACA was similar to that of mice in the vehicle control
ACA dose-dependently inhibited OVA-induced
histopathological changes in lung tissue
We observed histopathological changes in the lungs of mice with
OVA-induced asthma compared with the vehicle control group
(Figure 2a). These changes, which included airway remodeling,
goblet-cell hyperplasia, eosinophil infiltration, and mucus plugs,
were not completely prevented by 25 mg/kg/day ACA. However,
the lung tissue of mice treated with 50 mg/kg/day ACA was
similar to that of the vehicle control and dexamethasone treatment
groups. Thus OVA-induced pathological changes in the lungs
were suppressed by ACA in a dose-dependent manner.
Glycoprotein secretion was assessed by using the periodic acid-
Schiff (PAS) stain (Figure 2b) and hematoxylin and eosin stain.
Our results show that 25 mg/kg/day ACA partially suppressed
OVA-induced glycoprotein secretion, and 50 mg/kg/day ACA
reduced the level of glycoprotein secretion to that of the vehicle
control group. Thus ACA dose-dependently suppressed glycopro-
tein secretion in mice with OVA-induced asthma.
ACA suppressed T cells but had little or no effect on B
Allergen-induced asthma consists of early and late responses
mediated by immune cells (e.g., Th cells and B cells) and the
cytokine cascade . Therefore, we characterized infiltrating
lymphocytes by immunohistochemistry using specific T and B cell
markers such as CD4, CD8 and CD79. Increased secretion of IL-4
and IL-13 by T cells leads to antibody class switching (from IgG to
IgE) by B cells, and IL-5 induces eosinophilia . As shown in
Figure 3a, the OVA-induced increase in CD8+ cytotoxic T cells
was dose-dependently suppressed near bronchial and pulmonary
arteries by ACA treatment. Infiltration of CD4+ Th cells, which
are important in the pathogenesis of asthma, was much more
increased than that of CD8+ T cells in the OVA-induced asthma
model, and this response was also suppressed by ACA (Figure 3b).
In contrast, expression of CD79a, a marker of B cell activation,
Figure 1. ACA dose-dependently decreased white blood cell counts and the level of IgE in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice
with OVA-induced asthma. (a) ACA dose-dependently decreased white blood cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice with OVA-
induced asthma. (b) ACA decreased IgE levels in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluid of mice with OVA-induced asthma. #p,0.01 vs. CON (vehicle
control); +p,0.01 vs. OVA (OVA-induced asthma model); ¥p,0.01 vs. DEX (dexamethasone); "p,0.01 vs. ACA-25 mg (25 mg/kg/day ACA).
ACA Inhibits Asthma by Cytokines Modulation
PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org2February 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 2 | e56447
was not altered by ACA (Figure 3c). The results show that ACA is
more effective at suppressing CD8 cytotoxic T cells and CD4 Th
cells than B cells.
ACA suppressed expression of cytokines related to Th1/2
cells in OVA-induced asthma
During allergic asthmatic inflammation and airway remodeling,
recruited inflammatory cells, lung epithelial cells, and resident lung
macrophages are activated and release cytokines promoting a Th2
type immune response in the lungs. To investigate this effect, we
examined whether ACA treatment could alter the expression of
Th1/2 cytokines IL-4, IL-6, IL-12a, and IL-13 in lung tissues. We
focused on the expression of Th1/2 cytokines because immuno-
histochemistry results showed that T cells were reduced after ACA
treatment. In the present study, expression of Th2 cytokines IL-4,
IL-6, and IL-13 were decreased dose-dependently in the ACA-
treated mice compared with the untreated OVA-challenged group
(Figure 4a, 4b, and 4d). In addition, the Th1 cytokine IL-12a was
decreased in ACA-treated mice compared with the untreated
OVA-challenged group (Figure 4c). Thus, ACA treatment
influences the cytokine milieu in the allergic asthmatic state.
ACA reduced expression of Th2 and Th1 cytokines
Asthma is characterized by increased secretion of proinflam-
matory cytokines by Th2 and Th1 cells . We further
investigated the localization and number of infiltrated inflamma-
tory cells responsible for cytokine expression. Cytokines localized
primarily near inflamed bronchial and pulmonary arterioles. Th2
cytokines IL-13 and IL-4, which were overexpressed in the OVA-
induced asthma model, were suppressed by both doses of ACA
(Figure 5a and 5b). However, ACA did not significantly inhibit
OVA-induced overexpression of IL-5 (Figure 5c.) In addition,
ACA suppressed the secretion of Th1 cytokines IL-12a and IFN-c
(Figure 5d and 5e).
In our study, we found that ACA dose-dependently suppressed
WBC infiltration of the lungs in mice with OVA-induced asthma,
and 50 mg/kg/day ACA treatment reduced the WBC count to
that of the vehicle control group. Specifically, eosinophil
infiltration, which is characteristic of asthma, was significantly
suppressed by ACA. In addition, ACA blocked OVA-induced
histopathological changes such as airway remodeling, goblet-cell
hyperplasia, eosinophil infiltration, and mucus plugs. Although
treatment with ACA did not inhibit B cell activation, as assessed by
CD79a expression, our results show that ACA is effective at
reducing populations of CD4+ Th cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T
cells in the lungs of mice with OVA-induced asthma. Finally, ACA
downregulated Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 and Th1 cytokines
IL-12a and IFN-c, but did not affect the secretion of IL-5.
The relationship between Th1 cells and Th2 cells plays an
important role in the pathogenesis of asthma. Mamessier and
Magnan  hypothesized that there are three situations related to
asthma. In a healthy subject, activation of Th1 and Th2 cells is
balanced, and the level of regulatory T-cell activation is relatively
low. In well-controlled asthma, the level of Th1 cell activation is
similar to that of regulatory T cells, but Th2 cell activation is
suppressed. In uncontrolled asthma, the level of Th2 cell activation
is lower than that of Th1 cells, which in turn is lower than that of
regulatory T cells. Thus, not only is the balance between Th1 and
Th2 cells important, equilibrium is needed between Th1/ Th2
cells and regulatory T cells.
The Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 promote acute inflammatory
processes in the pathogenesis of asthma and structural changes in
the airways; [10,11,27]. We found that ACA dose-dependently
reduced IL-4 and IL-13 levels in the lungs (Figure 5d). In addition,
ACA decreased IL-12 a and INF-c levels as effectively as
dexamethasone (Figure 5e). Asthma was traditionally though to
be initiated by an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cells, The
functions of IL-12 have been fairly well characterized; however,
the role of INF-c in asthma has been controversial. Although
Caenorhabditis elegans extract was reported to ameliorate asthma
symptoms by increasing INF-c expression, hydrocortisone, which
is used to treat asthma, has been shown to decrease INF-c
expression . Previous studies have reported elevated INF-c
levels in the BALF and bronchioles of asthma patients [29,30]. In
addition, airway hyperresponsiveness after methacholine challenge
was more severe in IFN-c transgenic mice than in normal mice
. Our finding that ACA decreased INF-c expression in OVA-
induced asthma suggests that ACA suppresses Th1-related
cytokines as well as Th2 cytokines.
Although steroids cause a variety of adverse effects, they can
inhibit proinflammatory responses and induce anti-inflammatory
gene expression. Asthma therapies that target multiple pathways
are more likely to be effective than therapies that modulate a single
target, because asthmatic reactions are mediated by numerous
immune and inflammatory pathways. Because ACA inhibits
various proinflammatory cytokines, it shows promise as an
antiasthmatic drug candidate.
Table 1. ACA reduced eosinophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid recovered from mice with OVA-induced asthma.
NEUsLYMs EOSs BASsLUCs
Albumin-induced asthma model0.0460.0120.1160.052a
25 mg/kg/day ACA treatment0.0760.0770.0860.0490.7360.299a,b,c
50 mg/kg/day ACA treatment0.0260.0070.0460.019b
Results are expressed as mean 6 SD (n=7). NEU, neutrophils; LYMs, lymphocytes; EOSs, eosinophils; BASs, basophils; LUCs, large unstained cells.
ap,0.01 vs. CON (vehicle control);bp,0.01 vs. OVA (OVA-induced asthma model);cp,0.01 vs. DEX (dexamethasone treatment);dp,0.01 vs. ACA-25 mg (25 mg/kg/day
ACA Inhibits Asthma by Cytokines Modulation
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Materials and Methods
Dried A. galanga rhizomes were purchased from Dermalab,
Gyeonggi, Korea in May 2010. A voucher sample was deposited
at the Center for Senior Industry of the Youngdong University
(identification number: YD1202).
Isolation of ACA
The dried A. galanga rhizomes (3 kg) were chopped and then
extracted twice with 90% aqueous methanol (15 L) in a shaker
(90 rpm) at 30uC for 2 days. The methanol extracts were
combined and concentrated under vacuum, suspended in water
(700 mL), and then extracted four times with 300 mL ethyl
acetate. The ethyl acetate layer was concentrated, yielding a
brown oily substance (69 g), which was chromatographed on a
silica gel column (230–400 mesh, 150 id6400 mm) by stepwise
elution with methylene chloride and methanol mixtures of
increasing polarity, yielding 12 fractions by thin layer chromatog-
raphy monitoring. Fraction 2 (22 g) was further purified by high-
performance liquid chromatography (YMC-Pack Pro C-18
column, S-5 mm, 20 id6250 mm; 40%–70% aqueous acetonitrile
for 90 min, 7 mL/min) to yield 19.5 g ACA with .98% purity.
ACA (Figure 6) is a colorless oil:1H nuclear magnetic resonance
(CD3OD, 400 MHz): d 7.37 (2H, d, J=8.6 Hz), 7.09 (2H, d,
J=8.6 Hz), 6.23 (1H, d, J=6.0 Hz), 6.02 (1H, ddd, J=17.2, 10.4,
6.0 Hz), 5.28 (1H, dd, J=17.2, 1.2 Hz), 5.23 (1H, d, J=10.4, 1.2
Hz), 2.26 (3H, s), 2.08 (3H, s);13C nuclear magnetic resonance
Figure 2. ACA dose-dependently inhibited histopathological changes in the lungs of mice with OVA-induced asthma. (a) ACA dose-
dependently reduced inflammatory cell infiltration around vessels and bronchioles, mucus secretion and cell debris in bronchioles, and goblet cell
hyperplasia in the lungs. Bar size, 50 mm; hematoxylin and eosin stain. (b) ACA dose-dependently decreased bronchial secretion of glycoproteins in
OVA-induced asthma. Bar size, 50 mm; PAS stain. Arrow: inflammatory cell infiltration. Br, bronchiole; Gc, goblet cell; M, mucus secretion; V, vessel. A,
vehicle control; B, OVA-induced asthma model; C, dexamethasone; D, 25 mg/kg/day ACA; E, 50 mg/kg/day ACA.
ACA Inhibits Asthma by Cytokines Modulation
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(CD3OD, 400 MHz): d 170.2, 169.6, 150.6, 136.7, 136.2, 127.9,
121.5, 115.9, 75.7, 19.6, 19.5.
We conducted two animal studies using the same methods.
Seventy female BALB/c mice were purchased from Orient Bio
Inc. (Seungnam, Korea) and divided into five groups according to
treatment: (1) 0.5% methylcellulose (Sigma Chemical Co., St.
Louis, MO) as a vehicle control, (2) OVA-induced asthma model,
(3) 1 mg/kg/day dexamethasone, (4) 25 mg/kg/day ACA, and (5)
50 mg/kg/day ACA. On days 1 and 8, all mice except those used
as the vehicle control were sensitized via intraperitoneal injection
of 20 mg OVA (Sigma Chemical Co.) and 1 mg aluminum
hydroxide hydrate (Sigma Chemical Co.) in 500 mL saline. On
day 21, the mice were challenged once daily for 5 days with 5%
OVA for 30 min using a nebulizer (3 mL/min, NE-U17,
OMRON Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan). During the same 5-day period,
the treatment groups were also treated once daily with oral doses
of dexamethasone, 25 mg/kg/day ACA, or 50 mg/kg/day ACA
1 h before the OVA challenge. After mice in the vehicle control
group were sensitized with OVA, they were exposed to saline
(instead of OVA) and aluminum hydroxide hydrate by nebulizer
for 5 consecu\tive days. All experiments were approved by the
Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the Korea
Institute of Toxicology (Approval No. 1003-0028 & 1003-0028(1)).
Figure 3. ACA suppressed T cells but not B cells in mice with OVA-induced asthma. (a) ACA dose-dependently suppressed the
upregulation of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in the lungs. (b) ACA suppressed the upregulation of CD4+ Th cells as effectively as dexamethasone. (c) ACA
did not affect CD79a+ B cells in the lungs of mice with OVA-induced asthma. Immunopositive cells were counted in five randomly selected
nonoverlapping fields (6200 magnification) of three separately immunostained lung sections per animal. A, vehicle control; B, OVA-induced asthma
model; C, dexamethasone; D, 25 mg/kg/day ACA; E 50 mg/kg/day ACA.
ACA Inhibits Asthma by Cytokines Modulation
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One day after the final treatment, the mice were anesthetized by
intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital (60 mg/kg). The trachea
was cannulated, the right lung was lavaged three times with
0.4 mL phosphate buffered saline, and the fluid was pooled. The
BALF was then centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 min (Micro 17TR,
Hanil Science Industrial Co., Ltd. Seoul, Korea), and the pellet
was resuspended in 200 mL phosphate-buffered saline. Total and
differential cell counts were determined by using a Coulter counter
(T-540, Coulter Electronics, Hialeah, FL).
Lung tissues were fixed in 10% (v/v) formaldehyde solution,
dehydrated in a graded ethanol series (99.9%, 90%, 80%, and
70%), and embedded in paraffin. Paraffin-embedded lung tissue
was then sectioned (4 mm) longitudinally and stained with
hematoxylin and eosin. Sections were also stained with PAS for
semi-quantitative analysis of glycoprotein .
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
To evaluate proinflammatory cytokine expression, total RNA
was extracted from lung tissues with the RNeasy Mini Kit
(QIAGEN, Frederick, MD) according to the manufacturer’s
instructions. Total RNA (100 ng) was used as template for the
reverse transcription reaction. Primers were synthesized for the
semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as follows: IL-4
forward 59-CCAGCTAGTTGTCATCCTGC-39, IL-4 reverse
ATGGCCTGGAACTCTGTCTG-39 and IL-13 forward, 59-
GCTTGCTGATCCACATCT-39. The PCR cycles consisted of
denaturation at 94uC for 30 s, annealing at 58uC for 30 s and
extension at 72uC for 60 s for 35 cycles. PCR products were
separated by electrophoresis through a 2% agarose gel, stained
with ethidium bromide, and then detected using UV light. For
Figure 4. ACA dose-dependently suppressed expression of several Th1/2 cytokines in OVA-induced asthma. (a) IL-4 mRNA levels. (b)
IL-6 mRNA levels. (c) IL-12a mRNA levels. (d) IL-13 mRNA levels. Results are expressed as mean 6 SD (n=6 per group). *p,0.05 and **p,0.01 vs. OVA
ACA Inhibits Asthma by Cytokines Modulation
PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org6 February 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 2 | e56447
semi-quantitative analysis of PCR bands, the density of each band
was measured with a computer imaging device and accompanying
software (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA).
Deparaffinized tissue sections were treated with 3% hydrogen
peroxide in methanol for 10 min to remove endogenous
peroxidase. Antigen retrieval was carried with sodium citrate
buffer (0.1 M) using the microwave method. The slides were
incubated with normal serum to block nonspecific binding and
then incubated overnight at 4uC with primary antibodies (diluted
1:100–1:200) against CD8 (Serotec, MCA55GA), CD4 (Serotec,
MCA48R), CD79a (Santacruz, sc-25604), IL-13 (Santacruz, sc-
73318), IL-4 (Santacruz, sc-7887), IL-5 (Santacruz, sc-9350), IL-
12a (Santacruz, sc-1776), and IFN-c (Santacruz, sc-74104). The
slides were incubated for 2 h with biotinylated goat anti-rat
secondary antibody (1:500; DAKO, Carpinteria, CA) and with
horseradish-peroxidase conjugated streptavidin. Signals were
detected with 3,3-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride substrate
chromogen solution, and the cells were counterstained with
Mayer’s hematoxylin. To determine the number of positively
stained cells, we counted cells in five randomly selected
nonoverlapping fields (6200 magnification) of three separately
immunostained lung sections per animal (n=7 per group).
Figure 5. ACA reduced expression of Th2 and Th1 cytokines in OVA-induced asthma. Treatment with ACA reduced (a) IL-13 expression
and (b) almost completely blocked IL-4 expression in the lungs. (c) ACA also decreased IL-5 expression but to a lesser extent. (d) ACA almost
completely blocked IL-12a expression and (e) downregulated IFN-c expression. Immunopositive cells were counted in five randomly selected
nonoverlapping fields (6200 magnification) of three separately immunostained lung sections per each animal. A, vehicle control; B, OVA-induced
asthma model; C, dexamethasone; D, 25 mg/kg/day ACA; E, 50 mg/kg/day ACA. Results are expressed as mean 6 SD (n=7 per group);*p,0.05 and
**p,0.01 vs. OVA group.
Figure 6. Chemical structure of 19-acetoxychavicol acetate.
ACA Inhibits Asthma by Cytokines Modulation
PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org7 February 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 2 | e56447
Statistical analysis Download full-text
Results are expressed as mean 6 standard deviation (SD).
Group differences were evaluated by one-way analysis of variance
followed by Dunnett’s multiple comparison test; p,0.01 was
Conceived and designed the experiments: DHP BHK. Performed the
experiments: SJP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: EJL JHL
SSH BSP. Wrote the paper: JWS SCC.
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ACA Inhibits Asthma by Cytokines Modulation
PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org8 February 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 2 | e56447