Congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a rare but potentially severe infection. Prenatal education about congenital toxoplasmosis could be the most efficient and least harmful intervention, yet its effectiveness is uncertain.
To assess the effects of prenatal education for preventing congenital toxoplasmosis.
We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (15 January 2012), PubMed (1966 to 15 January 2012), EMBASE (1980 to 15 January 2012), CINAHL (1982 to 15 January 2012), LILACS (1982 to 15 January 2012), IMEMR (1984 to 15 January 2012), and reference lists of relevant papers, reviews and websites.
Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of all types of prenatal education on toxoplasmosis infection during pregnancy. Cluster-randomized trials were included.
Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and study quality. Two review authors extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy.
Two cluster-randomized controlled trials (involving a total of 5455 women) met the inclusion criteria. The two included trials measured the effectiveness of the intervention in different ways which meant that meta-analysis of the results was not possible One trial (432 women enrolled) conducted in Canada was judged of low methodological quality. The authors did not report measure of association but only provided P values (P less than 0.05) for all outcomes. Moreover, losses to follow-up were high (34%, 147 out of 432 women initially enrolled). The authors concluded that prenatal education can effectively change pregnant women's behavior as it increased pet, personal and food hygiene. The second trial conducted in France was also judged of low methodological quality. Losses to follow-up were high (44.5%, 2233 out of 5023 women initially enrolled) and differential (40% in the intervention group and 52% in the control group). The authors concluded that prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmoses has a significant effect on improving women's knowledge whereas it has no effect on changing women's behavior. In this trial 17/3949 pregnant women seroconverted for toxoplasmosis: 13/2591 (0.5%) in the intervention group and 4/1358 (0.3%) in the control group. The number of events was too small to reach conclusions about the effect of prenatal education on seroconversion rate during pregnancy.No other randomized trials on the effect of prenatal education on congenital toxoplasmosis rate, or toxoplasmosis seroconversion rate during pregnancy were detected.
Even though primary prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis is considered a desirable intervention, given the lack of related risks compared to secondary and tertiary prevention, its effectiveness has not been adequately evaluated. There is very little evidence from RCTs that prenatal education is effective in reducing congenital toxoplasmosis even though evidence from observational studies suggests it is. Given the lack of good evidence supporting prenatal education for congenital toxoplasmosis prevention, further RCTs are needed to confirm any potential benefits and to further quantify the impact of different sets of educational intervention.
"Although numerous studies have provided some evidence that education of pregnant women may be beneficial,68–72 one review of toxoplasmosis-related health education called for more rigorously designed research on prevention of toxoplasmosis through education, and questioned the validity of results from published studies.73 In addition, a recent Cochrane systematic review found very little rigorous scientific evidence that prenatal education is effective in reducing congenital toxoplasmosis and called for randomized controlled trials to confirm the potential benefits and quantify the impact of educational interventions.74 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the United States. Population-based studies have found T. gondii infection to be more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Soil contaminated with cat feces, undercooked meat, and congenital transmission are the principal sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis-associated illnesses include congenital neurologic and ocular disease; acquired illness in immunocompetent persons, most notably ocular disease; and encephalitis or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed persons. The association of T. gondii infection with risk for mental illness is intriguing and requires further research. Reduction of T. gondii in meat, improvements in hygiene and food preparation practices, and reduction of environmental contamination can prevent toxoplasmosis, but more research is needed on how to implement these measures. In addition, screening and treatment may help prevent toxoplasmosis or reduce the severity of disease in some settings.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 05/2014; 90(5):794-9. DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0722 · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess information provided by midwives about methods to prevent toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and cytomegalovirus, and whether the amount of provided information varied according to clients' and midwives' characteristics.
Intake consultations with 229 clients in four midwifery practices were videotaped between August 2010 and April 2011. Videotaped intake consultations, where infectious disease prevention were discussed, were evaluated, using a specifically designed nine-item scoring tool. Midwives and clients filled in a questionnaire about their background characteristics. Multilevel linear regression analysis was performed to establish associations between the amount of information provided and clients' and midwives' characteristics.
In total 172 consultations with fifteen midwives were suitable for analyses. Information about not eating raw or undercooked meat and not consuming unpasteurized dairy products was provided most often. Information about not sharing eating utensils with small children and thoroughly reheating all ready-to-eat foods were rarely provided. More information was provided when the client was a primigravidae or the consultation lasted longer than 50min.
Information on infectious disease prevention given to pregnant women by primary care midwives was insufficient; especially for cytomegalovirus prevention.
A guideline for professionals on preventable infectious diseases may be useful to inform pregnant women properly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progress in newborn survival has been slow, and even more so for reductions in stillbirths. To meet Every Newborn targets of fewer than 12 neonatal deaths and fewer than 12 stillbirths per 1000 births in every country by 2030 will necessitate accelerated scale-up of the most effective care targeting major causes of newborn deaths. We have systematically reviewed interventions across the continuum of care and various delivery platforms, and then modelled the effect and cost of scale-up in the 75 high-burden Countdown countries. Closure of the quality gap through the provision of effective care for all women and newborn babies delivering in facilities could prevent an estimated 113 000 maternal deaths, 531 000 stillbirths, and 1·325 million neonatal deaths annually by 2020 at an estimated running cost of US$4·5 billion per year (US$0·9 per person). Increased coverage and quality of preconception, antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal interventions by 2025 could avert 71% of neonatal deaths (1·9 million [range 1·6–2·1 million]), 33% of stillbirths (0·82 million [0·60–0·93 million]), and 54% of maternal deaths (0·16 million [0·14–0·17 million]) per year. These reductions can be achieved at an annual incremental running cost of US$5·65 billion (US$1·15 per person), which amounts to US$1928 for each life saved, including stillbirths, neonatal, and maternal deaths. Most (82%) of this effect is attributable to facility-based care which, although more expensive than community-based strategies, improves the likelihood of survival. Most of the running costs are also for facility-based care (US$3·66 billion or 64%), even without the cost of new hospitals and country-specific capital inputs being factored in. The maximum effect on neonatal deaths is through interventions delivered during labour and birth, including for obstetric complications (41%), followed by care of small and ill newborn babies (30%). To meet the unmet need for family planning with modern contraceptives would be synergistic, and would contribute to around a halving of births and therefore deaths. Our analysis also indicates that available interventions can reduce the three most common cause of neonatal mortality—preterm, intrapartum, and infection-related deaths—by 58%, 79%, and 84%, respectively.
The Lancet 05/2014; 384(9940). DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60792-3 · 45.22 Impact Factor
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