Health effects of olive oil polyphenols: Recent advances and possibilities for the use of health claims

Cardiovascular Risk and Nutrition Research Group (CARIN), Research in Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Disorders (RICAD), Barcelona, Spain.
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (Impact Factor: 4.6). 05/2013; 57(5). DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201200421
Source: PubMed


The Mediterranean diet and consumption of olive oil have been connected in several studies with longevity and a reduced risk of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle, such as regular physical activity, a healthy diet, and the existing social cohesion in Southern European countries have been recognised as candidate protective factors that may explain the Mediterranean Paradox. Along with some other characteristics of the Mediterranean diet, the use of olive oil as the main source of fat is common in Southern European countries. The benefits of consuming olive oil have been known since antiquity and were traditionally attributed to its high content in oleic acid. However, it is now well established that these effects must also be attributed to the phenolic fraction of olive oil with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. The mechanisms of these activities are varied and probably interconnected. For some activities of olive oil phenolic compounds, the evidence is already strong enough to enable the legal use of health claims on foods. This review discusses the health effects of olive oil phenols along with the possibilities of communicating these effects on food labels.

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Available from: Igor Pravst, Aug 05, 2014
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    • "Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is the major phenolic compound in VOO in both free and conjugated form, mainly as oleuropein aglycone structures commonly named secoiridoids. HT has shown showing a wide range of biological functions, such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective activities, as well as having beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system [4] [5]. The potential health benefits of HT have stimulated intense research on the bioavailability and metabolism of VOO phenolic compounds, a requisite to support their potential benefits for human health. "
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    ABSTRACT: Scope: Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is the major phenolic compound in virgin olive oil (VOO) in free and conjugated forms that may exert health benefits against atherosclerosis. The native form of HT is undetectable in plasma due to an extensive first pass phase II metabolism. Therefore, it is necessary to find strategies to obtain HT metabolites and to demonstrate their protective role against the endothelial dysfunction. Methods and results: Biosynthesis of the main plasmatic HT metabolites was performed through Caco-2 cells. The bioactivity of HT and the mixture of metabolites was tested at physiological concentrations (1, 2, 5 and 10 μM) in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) co-incubated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL) for 18 and 24 h. After the incubations, cells and media were analyzed to test possible deconjugation of metabolites or conjugation of HT. Both HT and metabolites significantly reduced the secretion of E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, but only HT metabolites further reduced MCP-1 at 24 h. HT underwent a conjugation process after incubation leading to its main metabolites in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: Physiological HT metabolites, synthetized for the first time by using an intestinal cell model, might be the responsible in part for the protection against endothelial dysfunction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201500361 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    • "A health claim is defined as any claim that states, suggests or implies that a relationship exists between a food category, a food or one of its constituents and health (Reg. EU 432/2012; Martín-Pelá ez et al., 2013). The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has approved a number of health claims for olive oil on the basis of generally accepted scientific data, e.g. the claim that ''olive oil polyphenols contribute to the protection of blood lipids from oxidative stress'' (EFSA, 2010; EFSA, 2011b). "
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    ABSTRACT: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is the top commercial grade of olive oil, and its fatty acid composition and minor compounds have many documented health benefits. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has recently attributed some health claims to EVOO. Although numerous studies have been carried out on its production technology and nutritional effects, little is known about the composition and quality of EVOO from the retail market. Thus, our aim was to evaluate EVOOs from the Italian market by assessing their fatty acid composition, quality indices, polyphenols, tocopherol content and antioxidant activity (ABTS method) with a view to the possible application of EFSA health claims. High variability was found for phenolic compounds and tocopherols, the levels of which were significantly higher in 100% Italian labeled oils compared with European Union blends. Consumption of the recommended daily amount of EVOO would cover about 50% of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of tocopherols, as well as the polyphenol intake recommended by EFSA. Only 3 of the 32 samples had a phenolic content above 250 ppm. Particularly high polyphenol indices were found in the samples of Italian oils covered by Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs). In conclusion, the food industry and consumers need to pay close attention to producing and choosing the best EVOO from the nutritional viewpoint.
    Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 02/2015; 40(june 2015):154-162. DOI:10.1016/j.jfca.2014.12.012 · 1.99 Impact Factor
    • "Several biological properties have been assigned to phenolic compounds derived from olive oil [1]; moreover their ability to attenuate inflammation makes these components promising dietary supplements in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases [3] [4] [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study we investigated the ability of a phenolic extract from extra virgin olive oil (OPE) to modulate the inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells. Undifferentiated and differentiated Caco-2 cells were challenged with LPS (50 μg/ml) or IL-1β (5 ng/ml) to mimic the early and intermediate phase of intestinal inflammation, respectively. The effects of OPE on NF-κB-driven transcription and IL-8 promoter activity were evaluated in transfection assays, coupled to p65 nuclear translocation. Modulation of IL-8 mRNA levels by OPE was measured by quantitative RT-PCR while effects on protein levels by ELISA. Specific MAPKs inhibitors were used to investigate mRNA stability and the involvement of related signalling pathways. OPE prevented IL-8 expression and secretion in LPS-treated Caco-2 cells. In the presence of IL-1β OPE exhibited opposing effects on IL-8 gene transcription and mRNA/protein levels. While in IL-1β-treated cells IL-8 promoter activity was inhibited by treatment with OPE, IL-8 mRNA stability was strongly enhanced, leading to increased protein expression. Inhibitors of p38 and ERKs partly prevented OPE effect on IL-8 mRNA levels. Intestinal epithelial cells represent a direct target of the action of olive oil phenols where they regulate IL-8 expression by transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 02/2015; 59(6). DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201400800 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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