Ambient particulate air pollution and acute lower respiratory infections: a systematic review and implications for estimating the global burden of disease.
ABSTRACT Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) account for nearly one fifth of mortality in young children worldwide and have been associated with exposures to indoor and outdoor sources of combustion-derived air pollution. A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant articles on air pollution and ALRI in children. Using a Bayesian approach to meta-analysis, a summary estimate of 1.12 (1.03, 1.30) increased risk in ALRI occurrence per 10 μg/m3 increase in annual average PM2.5 concentration was derived from the longer-term (subchronic and chronic) effects studies. This analysis strengthens the evidence for a causal relationship between exposure to PM2.5 and the occurrence of ALRI and provides a basis for estimating the global attributable burden of mortality due to ALRI that is not influenced by the wide variation in regional case fatality rates. Most studies, however, have been conducted in settings with relatively low levels of PM2.5. Extrapolating their results to other, more polluted, regions will require a model that is informed by evidence from studies of the effects on ALRI of exposure to PM2.5 from other combustion sources, such as secondhand smoke and household solid fuel use.
Article: Role of type 1 fimbria- and P fimbria-specific adherence in colonization of the neurogenic human bladder by Escherichia coli.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent clinical studies suggest that the deliberate colonization of the human bladder with a prototypic asymptomatic bacteriuria-associated bacterium, Escherichia coli 83972, may reduce the frequency of urinary tract infection in individuals with spinal cord injuries. However, the mechanism by which E. coli 83972 colonizes the bladder is unknown. We examined the role in bladder colonization of the E. coli 83972 genes papG and fimH, which respectively encode P and type 1 receptor-specific fimbrial adhesins. E. coli 83972 and isogenic papGDelta and papGDelta fimHDelta mutants of E. coli 83972 were compared for their capacities to colonize the neurogenic human bladder. Both strains were capable of stable colonization of the bladder. The results indicated that type 1 class-specific adherence and P class-specific adherence, while implicated as significant colonization factors in experiments that employed various animal model systems, were not required for colonization of the neurogenic bladder in human beings. The implications of these results with regard to the selection of potential vaccine antigens for the prevention of urinary tract infection are discussed.Infection and Immunity 12/2002; 70(11):6481-4. · 4.16 Impact Factor
BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 11/2005; 331(7519):762-5.
Article: Assessing the health impacts of air pollution: a re-analysis of the Hamilton children's cohort data using a spatial analytic approach.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper was to reassess children's exposure to air pollution as well as investigate the importance of other covariates of respiratory health. We re-examined the Hamilton Children's Cohort (HCC) dataset with enhanced spatial analysis methods, refined in the approximately two decades since the original study was undertaken. Children's exposure to air pollution was first re-estimated using kriging and land-use regression. The land-use regression model performed better, compared to kriging, in capturing local variation of air pollution. Multivariate linear and logistic regression analysis was then applied for the study of potential risk factors for respiratory health. Findings agree with the HCC study-results, confirming that children's respiratory health was associated with maternal smoking, hospitalization in infancy and air pollution. However, results from this study reveal a stronger association between children's respiratory health and air pollution. Additionally, this study demonstrated associations with low-income, household crowding and chest illness in siblings.International Journal of Environmental Health Research 03/2008; 18(1):17-35. · 0.86 Impact Factor