Hypoxia-inducible Factor and Target Gene Expression Are Decreased in Patients with Sepsis
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a molecular key player in response to hypoxemic/inflammatory conditions prevailing in sepsis. In a prospective observational study, we tested the hypotheses that sepsis affects HIF-1α messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression (primary hypothesis) and also (secondary hypotheses) the expression of the HIF-1α target genes adrenomedullin and β2-integrins. Furthermore, we tested that lipopolysaccharide administration increases HIF-1α mRNA and protein in naive and endotoxin-tolerant monocytes.
In 99 patients with sepsis and 48 healthy volunteers, leukocyte HIF-1α mRNA expression (real-time polymerase chain reaction), cytokine concentrations (enzymelinked immunosorbent assay), and intracellular distribution of HIF-1α protein (immunofluorescence staining) were assessed. In vitro, HIF-1α mRNA expression and protein were measured in naive or endotoxin-tolerant (48 h; 0.05 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide) monocytes, with/without additional lipopolysaccharide (6h; 1 μg/ml).
In comparison to healthy volunteers, HIF-1α mRNA expression (-67%; P = 0.0001) and HIF-1α protein positive cells (-66.7%; P = 0.01) were decreased in sepsis. mRNA expression of adrenomedullin (-75%), CD11a (-85%), and CD11b (-86%; all P = 0.0001) was also decreased. In contrast, interleukin 6 (P = 0.0001), interleukin 10 (P = 0.0001), and tumor necrosis factor-α (P = 0.0002) concentrations were increased. Of note, HIF-1α mRNA expression was inversely associated with illness severity (Simplified Acute Physiology Score II; r = -0.29; P = 0.0001). In vitro, acute lipopolysaccharide administration of naive monocytic cells increased HIF-1α mRNA expression, whereas HIF-1α mRNA and protein (-60%; P = 0.001) were decreased in endotoxin-tolerant cells, which still up regulated cytokines.
In sepsis, HIF-1α mRNA expression was suppressed and inversely associated with illness severity. While acute lipopolysaccharide administration increased HIF-1α mRNA expression, prolonged stimulation suppressed HIF-1α expression. The clinical implications of decreased HIF-1α may include maladaption to tissue hypoxia or depressed immune function.
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- "A post-hoc two-tailed Student's t-test for independent samples was performed applying a Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. Analyses were performed using the Graphpad Prism 5 software (San Diego, CA) , . "
ABSTRACT: Background Previous investigations and meta-analyses on the effect of glucocorticoids on mortality in septic shock revealed mixed results. This heterogeneity might be evoked by genetic variations. Such candidate is a promoter polymorphism (-94ins/delATTG) of the gene encoding the ubiquitous transcription-factor nuclear-factor-κB (NF-κB) which binds to recognition elements in the promoter of several genes encoding for the innate immune-system. In turn, hydrocortisone inhibits NF-κB nuclear translocation and thus transcription of key immune-response regulators. Accordingly, we tested the hypotheses that hydrocortisone has a NFKB1 genotype dependent effect on 1) NF-κB1 nuclear translocation evoked by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in monocytes in vitro, and 2) mortality in septic shock. Methods Monocytes of volunteers with the homozygous insertion (II; n = 5) or deletion (DD; n = 6) NFKB1 genotype were incubated with 10 µgml-1 LPS ± hydrocortisone (10-5M), and NF-κB1 nuclear translocation was assessed (immunofluorescence). Furthermore, we analyzed 30-day-mortality in 160 patients with septic shock stratified for both genotype and hydrocortisone therapy. Results Hydrocortisone inhibited LPS induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB1 in II (25%±11;p = 0.0001) but not in DD genotypes (51%±15;p = n.s.). Onehundredandfour of 160 patients with septic shock received hydrocortisone, at the discretion of the intensivist. NFKB1 deletion allele carriers (ID/DD) receiving hydrocortisone had a much greater 30-day-mortality (57.6%) than II genotypes (24.4%; HR:3.18, 95%-CI:1.61-6.28;p = 0.001). In contrast, 30-day mortality was 22.2% in ID/DD and 25.0% in II genotypes without hydrocortisone therapy. Results were similar when using propensity score matching to account for possible bias in the intensivists' decision to administer hydrocortisone. Conclusion Hydrocortisone fails to inhibit LPS induced nuclear NF-κB1 translocation in deletion allele carriers of the NFKB1 promoter polymorphism (-94ins/delATTG). In septic shock, hydrocortisone treatment is associated with markedly increased 30-day-mortality only in such carriers. Accordingly, previous heterogeneous results regarding the benefit of hydrocortisone in septic shock may be reconciled by genetic variation of the NFKB1 promoter polymorphism.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104953. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104953 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is a master regulator of cellular adaptation to hypoxia and has been proposed as a potent therapeutic target for cerebral ischemia. However, research on the expression and effects of HIF-1α in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of HIF-1α in the hippocampus and its possible protective effect against hippocampal apoptosis and cognitive dysfunction in a rat model of SAH. Seventy-two Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into the sham group, the SAH+vehicle group, and the SAH+YC-1 group. Immunohistochemical staining and western blotting analyses revealed that the expression of HIF-1α and its downstream effectors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), erythropoietin (EPO), and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), increased in the hippocampus 48h after the induction of SAH. YC-1 blocked this upregulation. The number of active caspase-3-positive cells and the expression of active caspase-3 in the hippocampus significantly increased in the YC-1 group relative to the vehicle group. A cell death assay further revealed that DNA fragmentation was significantly increased at 48h in the YC-1 group compared with the vehicle group. In Morris water maze (MWM) tests, the YC-1 group showed increased escape latency times and distances as well as reduced time spent and distance traveled in the target quadrant. These results indicate that hippocampal apoptosis increased and cognitive function deteriorated when HIF-1α was inhibited, suggesting that HIF-1α has a neuroprotective effect in SAH and may represent an effective therapeutic target.Brain research 04/2013; 1517. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2013.04.024 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the present era of ever-increasing antibiotic resistance and increasingly complex and immunosuppressed patient populations, physicians and scientists are seeking novel approaches to battle difficult infectious disease conditions. Development of a serious infection implies a failure of innate immune capabilities in the patient, and one may consider whether pharmacological strategies exist to correct and enhance innate immune cell function. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), the central regulator of the cellular response to hypoxic stress, has recently been recognized to control the activation state and key microbicidal functions of immune cells. HIF-1 boosting drugs are in clinical development for anemia and other indications, and could be repositioned as infectious disease therapeutics. With equal attention to opportunities and complexities, we review our current understanding of HIF-1 regulation of microbial host–pathogen interactions with an eye toward future drug development. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s40121-014-0030-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.06/2014; 3(2). DOI:10.1007/s40121-014-0030-1