Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy Progression Associated With Intraplaque Neovascularization

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 16.5). 03/2013; 61(9):e149. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.08.1036
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Available from: Issei Komuro, Aug 24, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Although survival after heart transplantation (HTx) has improved in recent years, cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is still the leading cause of remote morbidity and mortality in HTx recipients, partly because of difficulty with its diagnosis. In general, routine surveillance for CAV is advocated with coronary angiography accompanied by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) if necessary. However, these modalities have limitations with respect to low spatial resolution, and sufficient qualitative/quantitative assessment of coronary intima has not been accomplished. Recently, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a novel intracoronary imaging technique using an optical analogue of ultrasound with a spatial resolution of 10-20 µm, which is 10 times greater than IVUS. We here experienced a 49-year-old male who received a HTx 3 years ago, and OCT was executed during low molecular weight dextran injection. OCT demonstrated distinct double intimal layers probably consisting of a donor-transmitted atherosclerotic layer and an inner intimal proliferation due to CAV, which was indistinguishable by IVUS and virtual histological analyses. We believe that OCT imaging is not only a new loadstar during treatment of CAV but also a new generation modality for screening for early CAV in HTx recipients.
    International Heart Journal 03/2014; 55(2). DOI:10.1536/ihj.13-279 · 1.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This study sought to evaluate adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) in vivo with novel imaging technique of optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: To verify OCT methods for quantification of VV, we first studied 2 swine carotid arteries in a model of focal angiogenesis by autologous blood injection, and compared microchannel volume (MCV) by OCT and VV by m-CT, and counts of those. In OCT images, adventitial MC was identified as signal-voiding areas which were located within 1 mm from the lumen-intima border. After manually tracing microchannel areas and the boundaries of lumen-intima and media-adventitial in all slices, we reconstructed 3D images. Moreover, we performed with OCT imaging in 8 recipients referred for evaluation of cardiac allograft vasculopathy at 1 year after heart transplantation. MCV and plaque volume (PV) were assessed with 3D images in each 10-mm-segment. Results: In the animal study, among the 16 corresponding 1-mm-segments, there were significant correlations of count and volume between both the modalities (count r(2) = 0.80, P < 0.01; volume r(2) = 0.50, P < 0.01) and a good agreement with a systemic bias toward underestimation with m-CT. In the human study, there was a significant positive correlation between MCV and PV (segment number = 24, r(2) = 0.63, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our results suggest that evaluation of MCV with 3D OCT imaging might be a novel method to estimate the amount of adventitial VV in vivo, and further has the potential to provide a pathophysiological insight into a role of the VV in allograft vasculopathy.
    Atherosclerosis 03/2015; 239(1). DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.01.016 · 3.99 Impact Factor