Diagnostic difficulties, therapeutic strategies, and performance of scoring systems in patients with autoimmune hepatitis and concurrent hepatitis B/C

Department of Gastroenterology, Hacettepe university , Ankara , Turkey.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.33). 03/2013; 48(4). DOI: 10.3109/00365521.2013.772231
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Abstract Background. The diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is already difficult, and that of AIH with chronic viral hepatitis including hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) is even more challenging. To date, only a few case-based studies have described this association. Aims. The aim was to retrospectively assess diagnostic difficulties, therapeutic approaches, and performance of the scoring systems in AIH patients with concurrent HBV and HCV. Methods. A total of 25 patients from United States, Sweden, Italy, and Turkey were retrospectively evaluated. Both revised and simplified criteria suggested by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group were applied for each patient. All study data were obtained from medical records. Results. Of the 25 patients, 20 (80%) had concomitant HCV and 5 (20%) had HBV. Based on the revised scoring system and simplified criteria, 18 (72%) and 12 (48%) patients were diagnosed as "probable" AIH. None of the patients were diagnosed as "definite" AIH according to both scoring systems. Patients with HCV initially were treated with immunosuppressive agents, and antiviral therapy was commenced when biochemical remission occurred. AIH patients with HBV were first treated with antiviral and thereafter, immunosuppressive therapy was started. Conclusions. This large case series describes concurrent AIH and chronic viral hepatitis. The revised scoring system for AIH had a better performance than the simplified scoring system. However, neither scoring system is optimal for diagnosing AIH alone. In these patients, a definitive diagnosis of AIH should be based on a combination of serological profiles, histological findings, scoring systems, treatment response, and outcomes.

Download full-text


Available from: Cumali Efe, Dec 29, 2014
1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic liver disease putatively caused by loss of tolerance to hepatocytespecific autoantigens. It is characterized by female predilection, elevated aminotransferase levels, autoantibodies, increased γ-globulin or IgG levels and biopsy evidence of interface hepatitis. It is currently divided into types 1 and 2, based on expression of autoantibodies. Autoantigenic epitopes have been identified only for the less frequent type 2. Although autoimmune hepatitis occurs in childhood, this review focuses on disease in adults. In the absence of pathognomonic biomarkers, diagnosis requires consideration of clinical, biochemical, serological and histological features, which have been codified into validated diagnostic scoring systems. Since many features also occur in other chronic liver diseases, these scoring systems aid evaluation of the differential diagnosis. New practice guidelines have redefined criteria for remission to include complete biochemical and histological normalization on immunosuppressive therapy. Immunosuppression is most often successful using prednisone or prednisolone and azathioprine; however, the combination of budesonide and azathioprine for non-cirrhotic patients offers distinct advantages. Patients failing standard immunosuppression are candidates for alternative immunosuppressive regimens, yet none of the options has been studied in a randomized, controlled trial. Overlap syndromes with either primary sclerosing cholangitis or primary biliary cirrhosis occur in a minority. Liver transplantation represents a life-saving option for patients presenting with acute liver failure, severely decompensated cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Transplant recipients are at risk for recurrent autoimmune hepatitis in the allograft, and de novo disease may occur in patients transplanted for other indications. Patients transplanted for AIH are also at risk for recurrent or de novo inflammatory bowel disease. Progress in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis should lead to identification of specific diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and new therapeutic strategies.
    03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11684-015-0386-y
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background De-novo or reactivated autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) has been reported during or a short time after administration of interferon (IFN) in patients treated for hepatitis C (HCV). Reports on AIH during long-term follow-up after IFN treatment are scarce.Patients and methodsPatients diagnosed with both HCV and AIH were identified in clinical databases of four gastroenterology departments. The medical records of patients diagnosed with AIH after IFN therapy were retrospectively assessed.ResultsFive patients (four female, one male) with a mean age of 50 years (range: 34-59) were identified. AIH developed at a mean duration of 4.8 years (range: 1-10) after HCV therapy. Three of five patients had a sustained viral response to antiviral therapy, whereas two were nonresponders. All patients were treated with immunosuppressive therapy after being diagnosed with AIH. Biochemical remission was achieved in four patients; however, one patient had an aggressive course and died despite immunosuppressive therapy. We could not identify any risk factors associated with the development of AIH.ConclusionAIH may develop in patients treated with IFN, not only during or after a short time from therapy but also after a long time from discontinuation of therapy. (C) 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health vertical bar Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
    European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology 04/2013; 25(11). DOI:10.1097/MEG.0b013e328361c704 · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background. Despite advances in the understanding of the pathophysiological basis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), it is still difficult to delineate the mechanisms involved in progression from hepatic inflammation toward fibrosis. Our aim was to study serum concentrations of NO in AIH of different histological severity and possible effects of immunosuppressive therapy on NO production. Materials and methods. We studied serum NO metabolites (NOx) in 47 consecutive patients with AIH and in 28 age- and sex-matched controls. Results. Serum NOx concentrations were higher in AIH patients than in controls (10.3 (4.5-27.3 µmol/L) vs. 4.3 (1.6-14.3 µmol/L), p < 0.001). According to liver histology, median NOx concentrations were significantly higher in patients with severe interface hepatitis compared to patients with mild-moderate interface hepatitis (12.3 (4.5-27.3 µmol/L) vs. 9.3 (4.6-20.3 µmol/L), p = 0.029). Similarly, serum NOx concentrations were significantly higher in patients with advanced fibrosis than in those with early fibrosis (12.2 (4.6-27.3 µmol/L) vs. 9.3 (6.6-12.8 µmol/L), p = 0.018). NOx concentrations decreased in 16 AIH patients who were tested also after biochemical remission was achieved (12.6 (4.5-22.8 µmol/L) at baseline and 5.9 (2.8-10.5 µmol/L) after remission, p = 0.001). Conclusion. This study shows that serum NOx levels are associated with the histological severity of AIH. Hepatocyte inflammation and injury may activate hepatic stellate cells and kupffer cells, and the consequences may include release of NO, which ultimately promotes hepatic fibrosis. Immunosuppressive therapy inhibits this process and the production of NO.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2014; 50(2):1-7. DOI:10.3109/00365521.2014.974203 · 2.33 Impact Factor