Gait speed correlates in a multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in Brazil: a cross-sectional population-based study.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Gait speed is a strong predictor of a wide range of adverse health outcomes in older adults. Mean values for gait speed in community-dwelling older adults vary substantially depending on population characteristics, suggesting that social, biological, or health factors might explain why certain groups tend to self-select their gait speed in different patterns. The vast majority of studies reported in the literature present data from North American and European populations. There are few population-based studies from other regions with a different ethnicity and/or social and health conditions. To address this, the present study identified the mean usual and fast gait speeds in a representative multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in a developing country, and explored their association with sociodemographic, mental and physical health characteristics. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population-based study of a sample of 137 men and 248 women, aged 65 years and over. Usual gait speed and fast gait speed were measured on a 4.6 m path. Participants were classified into slow, intermediate, and faster groups by cluster analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent effect of each factor on the odds of presenting with a slower usual and slower fast gait speeds. RESULTS: Participants had a mean (SD) usual gait speed of 1.11 (0.27) m/s and a mean fast gait speed of 1.39 (0.34) m/s. We did not observe an independent association between gait speed and race/ethnicity, educational level, or income. The main contributors to present a slower usual gait speed were low physical activity level, stroke, diabetes, urinary incontinence, high concern about falling, and old age. A slower fast gait speed was associated with old age, low physical activity, urinary incontinence and high concern about falling. CONCLUSION: A multiracial population of older adults living in a developing country showed a similar mean gait speed to that observed in previously studied populations. The results suggest that low physical activity, urinary incontinence and high concern about falling should not be neglected and may help identify those who might benefit from early intervention.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of subclinical brain lesions and cognitive function on gait performance with or without concurrent cognitive task in community-dwelling elderly subjects. Participants without dementia (92 men and 109 women with a mean age of 67.8 years) underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging, neuropsychologic tests, and gait measurements. Impaired gait velocity of the Timed Up and Go test was associated with deep white matter lesions (odds ratio [OR], 2.338; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.120-4.880) and diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.725; 95% CI, 1.120-6.630) after adjusted for age, sex, education, and cognitive function tests. Impaired gait velocity of dual task walking was associated with age and the score of Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (OR, .899/1 point higher; 95% CI, .813-.994), whereas deep white matter lesions were not significantly associated with dual task walking. The present study showed that gait represents not only physical functioning but also subclinical cognitive dysfunction particularly memory impairment in healthy elderly subjects.Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 06/2014; · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ageing process may lead to reductions in physical fitness, a known risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate cross-sectional and combined associations of metabolic syndrome with body composition and physical fitness in a community based geriatric population. A total of 628 community-dwelling elders attending a geriatric health examination were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criterion with Asian cutoff of waist girth was adopted in this study. Body composition was obtained using bioimpedance analysis, and physical fitness was evaluated through the measurement of muscle strength (handgrip force), lower extremity muscle endurance (sit-to-stand test), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), and cardiorespiratory endurance (2-minute step test). Multivariable logistic regression and correlation analysis were performed to determine the association of metabolic syndrome with body composition and functionality variables. Metabolic syndrome was associated with increased skeletal muscle index (SMI) (odds ratio (OR), 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-2.07) and decreased flexibility (OR, 0.97, 95% CI, 0.95-0.99) compared with those without metabolic syndrome. When body mass index was accounted for in the analysis, the association of SMI with metabolic syndrome was reduced. Waist circumference was positively correlated with SMI but negatively correlated with flexibility, whereas high density lipoprotein was positively correlated with flexibility but negatively correlated with SMI. Reduced flexibility was positively associated with metabolic syndrome independent of age, gender, body composition, and functionality measurements in a community based geriatric population. Significant associations between metabolic syndrome with muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in the elderly were not observed. Furthermore, flexibility should be included in the complete evaluation for metabolic syndrome.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0117167. · 3.53 Impact Factor