Gait speed correlates in a multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in Brazil: a cross-sectional population-based study.

BMC Public Health (Impact Factor: 2.32). 02/2013; 13(1):182. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-182
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Gait speed is a strong predictor of a wide range of adverse health outcomes in older adults. Mean values for gait speed in community-dwelling older adults vary substantially depending on population characteristics, suggesting that social, biological, or health factors might explain why certain groups tend to self-select their gait speed in different patterns. The vast majority of studies reported in the literature present data from North American and European populations. There are few population-based studies from other regions with a different ethnicity and/or social and health conditions. To address this, the present study identified the mean usual and fast gait speeds in a representative multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in a developing country, and explored their association with sociodemographic, mental and physical health characteristics. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population-based study of a sample of 137 men and 248 women, aged 65 years and over. Usual gait speed and fast gait speed were measured on a 4.6 m path. Participants were classified into slow, intermediate, and faster groups by cluster analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent effect of each factor on the odds of presenting with a slower usual and slower fast gait speeds. RESULTS: Participants had a mean (SD) usual gait speed of 1.11 (0.27) m/s and a mean fast gait speed of 1.39 (0.34) m/s. We did not observe an independent association between gait speed and race/ethnicity, educational level, or income. The main contributors to present a slower usual gait speed were low physical activity level, stroke, diabetes, urinary incontinence, high concern about falling, and old age. A slower fast gait speed was associated with old age, low physical activity, urinary incontinence and high concern about falling. CONCLUSION: A multiracial population of older adults living in a developing country showed a similar mean gait speed to that observed in previously studied populations. The results suggest that low physical activity, urinary incontinence and high concern about falling should not be neglected and may help identify those who might benefit from early intervention.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Among community-dwelling older adults, mean values for gait speed vary substantially depending not only on the population studied, but also on the methodology used. Despite the large number of studies published in developed countries, there are few population-based studies in developing countries with socioeconomic inequality and different health conditions, and this is the first study with a representative sample of population. To explore this, the association of lower gait speed with sociodemographic, anthropometric factors, mental status and physical health was incorporated participants’ weight (main weight) in the analysis of population of community-dwelling older adults living in a developing country. Methods This was a cross-sectional population based on a sample of 1112 older adults aged 60 years and over from Health, Wellbeing and Aging Study cohort 2010. Usual gait speed (s) to walk 3 meters was stratified by sex and height into quartiles. Multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the independent effect of each factor associated with a slower usual gait speed. Results The average walking speed of the elderly was 0.81 m/s – 0.78 m/s among women and 0.86 m/s among men. In the final model, the factors associated with lower gait speed were age (OR = 3.56), literacy (OR = 3.20), difficulty in one or more IADL (OR = 2.74), presence of cardiovascular disease (OR = 2.15) and sedentarism. When we consider the 50% slower, we can add the variables handgrip strength, and the presence of COPD. Conclusions Gait speed is a clinical marker and an important measure of functional capacity among the elderly. Our findings suggest that lower walking speed is associated with age, education, but especially with modifiable factors such as impairment of IADL, physical inactivity and cardiovascular disease. These results reinforce how important it is for the elderly to remain active and healthy.
    BMC Geriatrics 04/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12877-015-0031-2 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Physical inactivity (PI) and obesity are risk factors for many health conditions, including knee pain (KP). The purpose of the present study was to examine the 6-year effects of PI and obesity on gait speed (GS) among older adults with frequent KP. This prospective cohort study used data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). At baseline, we studied 1788 adults aged 45 to 79 years old. We grouped the participants into four categories according to baseline scores on the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and body mass index (BMI). GS was measured using the 20-m timed walk test. Frequent KP was assessed with a self-report questionnaire, and obesity was assessed by BMI (30 kg/m2 or greater). General linear mixed models were conducted using data collected at baseline and 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 months. After adjusting for all covariates, lower levels of physical activity and obesity were associated with a decrease in GS (β = −0.095, SE = 0.011, p < 0.0001). Our results suggest that both PI and obesity are associated with decreased GS over time in older adults with frequent KP.
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 02/2015; 12(2):1849-1863. DOI:10.3390/ijerph120201849 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Gait speed (GS) is an important predictor of disability, falls, institutionalization and death among elderly people. Our aim was to assess which factors are associated with higher GS in a sample of physically active elderly. Subjects and methods A cross-sectional study was performed in a sample of 43 self-sufficient and active elderly (12 men and 31 women) aged 65–82 years. Anthropometric features (weight and height), mobility (Tinetti test), physical and mental health (Short Form 12 - SF12 questionnaire), physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for Elderly - PASE questionnaire), strength and power of lower limbs (Myotest Pro accelerometer) and GS were measured. A multivariable linear regression model was built in order to identify which variables were associated with higher GS. Results The final multivariable linear regression model included gender, fall in the previous year, hypertension, age, BMI and Mental Health score. Furthermore, it explained nearly 2/3 of the variability in GS (R2 = 0.64). Male sex, hypertension and a higher Mental Health score were associated with higher GS, whereas fall in the previous year and higher values of both age and BMI were associated with lower GS. A further model which included an interaction between sex and BMI (R2 = 0.68) revealed that the negative association between GS and BMI was found among women but not among men. Conclusions In addition to the well-known associations between GS and demographic and anthropometric characteristics, we reported a positive association between mental health and GS among generally healthy and physically active community-dwelling elderly.
    European geriatric medicine 04/2014; 5(2). DOI:10.1016/j.eurger.2013.12.001 · 0.55 Impact Factor