Infarto cerebral hemisférico: algoritmo de tratamento baseado em evidência

Arquivos Brasileiros de Neurocirurgia 02/2011; 30(2):76-83.


RESUMO O infarto cerebral hemisférico maligno tem mortalidade de 80%, apesar do tratamento conservador. Ele representa infarto de mais de 50% do território da artéria cerebral média (ACM), entretanto, nem todos os pacientes irão desenvolver o curso maligno. O objetivo desta revisão foi encontrar os fatores preditivos do curso maligno do edema cerebral maligno e, a partir desses fatores, propor um algoritmo de tratamento e tomadas de decisões para o infarto cerebral hemisférico. Os preditores foram pesquisados em artigos no PubMed. Com base nos preditores encontrados com valor estatístico signicativo, estruturou-se um algoritmo de gerenciamento para o infarto cerebral hemisférico. Os fatores preditivos de curso maligno foram: NIHSS > 15 hemisfério dominante e > 20 não dominante; oclusão da artéria carótida interna (ACI) ipsilateral à malformação do círculo de Willis; circulação colateral deciente; tomograa computadorizada (TC) hipodensidade > 50% e ressonância magnética (RM) difusão > 145 cm 3 do território da ACM; outro território vascular envolvido; perda da autorregulação; potencial evocado auditivo patológico; pressão intracraniana (PIC) > 35 mmHg e valores de pico de aminoácidos excitatórios medidos na microdiálise. Entretanto, esses dois últimos fatores aparecem apenas depois que o paciente está herniado. Os trials europeus deniram nível de evidência 1 para craniectomia descompressiva. Craniectomia descompressiva é o tratamento de primeira escolha para os pacientes < 60 anos com curso maligno do infarto hemisférico < 48h. Os fatores preditivos são importantes ferramentas para tomada de decisão quanto à indicação cirúrgica precoce. ABSTRACT Hemispheric ischemic stroke: evidence-based management algorithm Massive hemispheric infarctions (MHI) constitute 10% of all ischemic strokes and have a mortality rate of 80%, under conservative treatment. This stroke presents a hypodensity covering more than 50% of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory, however, not all the patients develop the malignant course of hemispheric infarctions. The goal of this study was to determine the predictors of fatal brain edema and to propose an evidence-based management algorithm. Search for predictors of MHI with malignant edema was performed in PubMed and Cochrane data base. An evidence-based management algorithm was structured from this study. Different predictors of fatal brain edema formation have been identied: NIHSS > 15 dominant and > 20 non dominant hemisphere; carotid occlusion with abnormal ipsilateral circle of Willis; collateral decit; early computed tomography (CT) hypodensity involving > 50% or DWI > 145 cm 3 of the MCA territory; involvement of additional vascular territories; impaired cerebral autoregulation; pathological auditory potentials evoked; ICP > 35 mmHg; microdialysis with peak values of the excitatory amino acids. Decompressive hemicraniectomy is the rst choice to treatment for MHI with malignant brain edema in patients > 60 years and < 48 hours after stroke. To know predictors with evidence level are important tools to make decision about surgical indication.

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