Article

Reversible Pathologic and Cognitive Phenotypes in an Inducible Model of Alzheimer-Amyloidosis

Departments of Pathology and Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, and Department of Neuroscience, Center for Translational Research in Neurodegenerative Disease, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.75). 02/2013; 33(9):3765-79. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4251-12.2013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Transgenic mice that express mutant amyloid precursor protein (APPsi) using tet-Off vector systems provide an alternative model for assessing short- and long-term effects of Aβ-targeting therapies on phenotypes related to the deposition of Alzheimer-type amyloid. Here we use such a model, termed APPsi:tTA, to determine what phenotypes persist in mice with high amyloid burden after new production of APP/Aβ has been suppressed. We find that 12- to 13-month-old APPsi:tTA mice are impaired in cognitive tasks that assess short- and long-term memories. Acutely suppressing new APPsi/Aβ production produced highly significant improvements in performing short-term spatial memory tasks, which upon continued suppression translated to superior performance in more demanding tasks that assess long-term spatial memory and working memory. Deficits in episodic-like memory and cognitive flexibility, however, were more persistent. Arresting mutant APPsi production caused a rapid decline in the brain levels of soluble APP ectodomains, full-length APP, and APP C-terminal fragments. As expected, amyloid deposits persisted after new APP/Aβ production was inhibited, whereas, unexpectedly, we detected persistent pools of solubilizable, relatively mobile, Aβ42. Additionally, we observed persistent levels of Aβ-immunoreactive entities that were of a size consistent with SDS-resistant oligomeric assemblies. Thus, in this model with significant amyloid pathology, a rapid amelioration of cognitive deficits was observed despite persistent levels of oligomeric Aβ assemblies and low, but detectable solubilizable Aβ42 peptides. These findings implicate complex relationships between accumulating Aβ and activities of APP, soluble APP ectodomains, and/or APP C-terminal fragments in mediating cognitive deficits in this model of amyloidosis.

0 Followers
 · 
82 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Levels of amyloid-beta monomer and deposited amyloid-beta in the Alzheimer's disease brain are orders of magnitude greater than soluble amyloid-beta oligomer levels. Monomeric amyloid-beta has no known direct toxicity. Insoluble fibrillar amyloid-beta has been proposed to be an in vivo mechanism for removal of soluble amyloid-beta and exhibits relatively low toxicity. In contrast, soluble amyloid-beta oligomers are widely reported to be the most toxic amyloid-beta form, both causing acute synaptotoxicity and inducing neurodegenerative processes. None of the amyloid-beta immunotherapies currently in clinical development selectively target soluble amyloid-beta oligomers, and their lack of efficacy is not unexpected considering their selectivity for monomeric or fibrillar amyloid-beta (or both) rather than soluble amyloid-beta oligomers. Because they exhibit acute, memory-compromising synaptic toxicity and induce chronic neurodegenerative toxicity and because they exist at very low in vivo levels in the Alzheimer's disease brain, soluble amyloid-beta oligomers constitute an optimal immunotherapeutic target that should be pursued more aggressively.
    Alzheimer's Research and Therapy 01/2014; 6(4):42. DOI:10.1186/alzrt272 · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Long before synaptic loss occurs in Alzheimer¿s disease significant harbingers of disease may be detected at the functional level. Here we examined if synaptic long-term potentiation is selectively disrupted prior to extracellular deposition of Aß in a very complete model of Alzheimer¿s disease amyloidosis, the McGill-R-Thy1-APP transgenic rat. Longitudinal studies in freely behaving animals revealed an age-dependent, relatively rapid-onset and persistent inhibition of long-term potentiation without a change in baseline synaptic transmission in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Thus the ability of a standard 200 Hz conditioning protocol to induce significant NMDA receptor-dependent short- and long-term potentiation was lost at about 3.5 months of age and this deficit persisted for at least another 2¿3 months, when plaques start to appear. Consistent with in vitro evidence for a causal role of a selective reduction in NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents, the deficit in synaptic plasticity in vivo was associated with a reduction in the synaptic burst response to the conditioning stimulation and was overcome using stronger 400 Hz stimulation. Moreover, intracerebroventricular treatment for 3 days with an N-terminally directed monoclonal anti- human Aß antibody, McSA1, transiently reversed the impairment of synaptic plasticity. Similar brief treatment with the BACE1 inhibitor LY2886721 or the ¿-secretase inhibitor MRK-560 was found to have a comparable short-lived ameliorative effect when tracked in individual rats. These findings provide strong evidence that endogenously generated human Aß selectively disrupts the induction of long-term potentiation in a manner that enables potential therapeutic options to be assessed longitudinally at the pre-plaque stage of Alzheimer¿s disease amyloidosis.
    12/2014; 2(1):4. DOI:10.1186/s40478-014-0175-x
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many lines of evidence support that β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides play an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia. But despite much effort the molecular mechanisms of how Aβ contributes to AD remain unclear. While Aβ is generated from its precursor protein throughout life, the peptide is best known as the main component of amyloid plaques, the neuropathological hallmark of AD. Reduction in Aβ has been the major target of recent experimental therapies against AD. Unfortunately, human clinical trials targeting Aβ have not shown the hoped-for benefits. Thus, doubts have been growing about the role of Aβ as a therapeutic target. Here we review evidence supporting the involvement of Aβ in AD, highlight the importance of differentiating between various forms of Aβ, and suggest that a better understanding of Aβ's precise pathophysiological role in the disease is important for correctly targeting it for potential future therapy.
    Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 11/2014; 12(1). DOI:10.1007/s13311-014-0313-y · 3.88 Impact Factor

Similar Publications