Variation in Prescribing Patterns and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Intravenous Busulfan in Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients
University of Washington School of Pharmacy, Seattle, WA, USAThe Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.48). 03/2013; 53(3):264-75. DOI: 10.1177/0091270012447196
Personalizing intravenous (IV) busulfan doses in children using therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is an integral component of hematopoietic cell transplant. The authors sought to characterize initial dosing and TDM of IV busulfan, along with factors associated with busulfan clearance, in 729 children who underwent busulfan TDM from December 2005 to December 2008. The initial IV busulfan dose in children weighing ≤12 kg ranged 4.8-fold, with only 19% prescribed the package insert dose of 1.1 mg/kg. In those children weighing >12 kg, the initial dose ranged 5.4-fold, and 79% were prescribed the package insert dose. The initial busulfan dose achieved the target exposure in only 24.3% of children. A wide range of busulfan exposures were targeted for children with the same disease (eg, 39 target busulfan exposures for the 264 children diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia). Considerable heterogeneity exists regarding when TDM is conducted and the number of pharmacokinetic samples obtained. Busulfan clearance varied by age and dosing frequency but not by underlying disease. The authors- group is currently evaluating how using population pharmacokinetics to optimize initial busulfan dose and TDM (eg, limited sampling schedule in conjunction with maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimation) may affect clinical outcomes in children.
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ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the influence of fludarabine on the pharmacokinetics of busulfan administered orally to patients receiving a conditioning regimen for hematopoietic allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Twenty-six patients treated with oral busulfan (1 mg/kg/6 h for 4 days) were divided into two groups according to the concomitant administration of fludarabine (n = 11; 30 mg/m(2) for 5 days) or subsequent administration of cyclophosphamide (n = 15; 60 mg/kg for 2 days). Serial blood samples were collected on Day 4 of busulfan administration. Plasma busulfan concentrations were determined by HPLC-UV and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the WinNonlin program. Patients concomitantly treated with fludarabine showed reduced apparent clearance of busulfan (110.5 mL/h/kg vs. 157.4 mL/h/kg) and higher AUC0-6 (area under the plasma concentrations vs. time curve) than patients subsequently treated with cyclophosphamide (7.9 µg h/mL vs. 5.7 µg h/mL). No association was observed between busulfan AUC0-6 and clinical evolution of the patients. Although plasma busulfan concentrations were higher in patients receiving concomitant fludarabine, myelosuppression-related toxicity was less frequent than in patients treated with busulfan and cyclophosphamide. The results suggest that patients treated with fludarabine should receive 30% lower busulfan doses during conditioning protocols for HSCT.The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 08/2013; 53(11). DOI:10.1002/jcph.130 · 2.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was established and evaluated describing the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the DNA-alkylating agent Busulfan in adults in order to predict the systemic Busulfan drug exposure in both plasma and toxicity-related organs. A generic PBPK model was tailored to describe Busulfan PK by implementing compound-specific physicochemical and metabolism data. With regard to possible influences of glutathione S transferase (GST) variations on Busulfan PK, two different PBPK model parameterizations were investigated: a first parameterization with individual GST activity (expressed as different estimated V max values) for each patient, and a resulting second model parameterization with a mean GST activity for all patients. Simulations were computed and compared to concentration-time data after intravenous Busulfan administration to 108 adults serving as development dataset. Subsequently, appropriateness of the PBPK model was evaluated with an external dataset not used for model development, consisting of 95 adults. Both PBPK model parameterizations of Busulfan successfully described the observed plasma concentrations. For the validation dataset, calculated PK parameters were as follows: clearance 0.16 ± 0.03 L/h/kg and volume of distribution 0.65 ± 0.06 L/kg (mean ± standard deviation). Mean absolute percentage error was less than 30 % for each PK parameter. Mass balances for distribution and excretion were in good agreement with the literature data. Both PBPK model parameterizations sufficiently described the observed concentration-time data while showing an adequate predictive performance. The model should be further evaluated for its ability to explain the between-subject variability in intravenous Busulfan PK parameters.Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 09/2013; 72(5). DOI:10.1007/s00280-013-2275-x · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Little information is currently available regarding the pharmacokinetics of busulfan in infants and small children to help guide decisions for safe and efficacious drug therapy. The objective of this study was to develop an algorithm for individualized dosing of intravenous busulfan in infants and children weighing less than or equal to 12kg, that would achieve targeted exposure with the first dose of busulfan. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was conducted using intensive time-concentration data collected through the routine therapeutic drug monitoring of busulfan in 149 patients from 8 centers. Busulfan pharmacokinetics were well described by a 1-compartment base model with linear elimination. The important clinical covariates impacting busulfan pharmacokinetics were actual body weight and age. Based on our model, the predicted clearance of busulfan increases approximately 1.7-fold between 6 weeks to 2 years of life. For infants less than 5 months of age, the model-predicted doses (mg/kg) required to achieve the therapeutic Css range of 600-900 ng/mL (AUC range = 900-1350 uM•min) were much lower compared to standard busulfan doses of 1.1mg/kg. These results could help guide clinicians and inform better dosing decisions for busulfan in young infants and small children undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation.Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 09/2013; 19(11). DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.08.014 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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