Article

Colorectal cancer screening in human immunodeficiency virus population: Are they at average risk?

Suresh Kumar Nayudu, Bhavna Balar, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center, Affiliated with Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY 10457, United States.
World journal of gastrointestinal oncology 12/2012; 4(12):259-64. DOI: 10.4251/wjgo.v4.i12.259
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate if human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population is getting adequate screening for colon cancer in the highly active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART) era with improved longevity, and the prevalence of polyps and adenomas in this population, when compared with the general population.
We conducted retrospective chart review of average-risk HIV population for colon cancer attending our infectious disease clinic. Individuals who underwent diagnostic colonoscopy were excluded. We extracted various demographic, HIV disease-specific and colonoscopy data including histo-pathological reports in the last 10 years. Total population was divided into a study group, who underwent screening colonoscopy and a control group who did not. We analyzed data using standard statistical methods and software.
We found that 25% of average-risk HIV-infected population was screened for colon cancer using colonoscopy. There was no difference in gender and ethnic distribution between the groups. We found wider distribution of age (50-84 years with mean 56 years) in the control group when compared to (50-73 years with mean 58 years) the study group. However, there were 89% of subjects with well-controlled HIV disease measured by HIV RNA copies of < 75 in the study group when compared with 70% in the control group (P < 0.0001). We noticed polyp detection rate of 55% and adenoma detection rate of 32% in HIV population.
It is unclear whether HIV or HAART medications play a role in increased prevalence of adenomas. We suggest that when estimating the risk for colonic neoplasms, HIV population should be considered as a high-risk group and screened accordingly.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
354 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV infection is related to an increased risk of cancer compared with general population, both AIDS-defining cancers (Kaposi's sarcoma, non Hodgkin's lymphoma, invasive cervical cancer) and non-AIDS-defining cancers. Although the advent of the highly active antiretroviral therapy era has decreased the Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma incidences, non-AIDS-defining malignancies, such as lung cancer, hepatocarcinoma, anal cancer and skin cancers, remain a major cause of morbidity and death in the HIV-infected population. The clinical presentation is often different between the infected and non-infected populations, often with a more advanced stage at diagnosis, a more aggressive pathology, and associated morbidities like immunosuppression, leading to poorer outcomes. Numerous studies have focused on HIV-related malignancies' treatment, however specific guidelines are still missing. Practitioners have to be careful with interactions between antiretroviral and antineoplastic drugs, particularly through the cytochrome P 450. Because of this, a national multidisciplinary approach, "Cancer and HIV, " was started in 2013 thanks to the National Institute of Cancer (INCa). The aim of this review is to present a scientific update about AIDS-and non-AIDS-defining malignancies, both in their clinical aspects and regarding their specific therapeutic management.
    Bulletin du cancer 11/2014; 101(11):1020-1029. DOI:10.1684/bdc.2014.2032 · 0.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Regardless of infection route, the intestine is the primary site for HIV-1 infection establishment and results in significant mucosal CD4+ T lymphocyte depletion, induces an inflammatory state that propagates viral dissemination, facilitates microbial translocation, and fosters establishment of one of the largest HIV reservoirs. Here we test the prediction that HIV infection modifies the composition and function of the mucosal commensal microbiota. Rectal mucosal microbiota were collected from human subjects using a sponge-based sampling methodology. Samples were collected from 20 HIV-positive men not receiving combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), 20 HIV-positive men on cART and 20 healthy, HIV-negative men. Microbial composition of samples was analyzed using barcoded 16S Illumina deep sequencing (85,900 reads per sample after processing). Microbial metagenomic information for the samples was imputed using the bioinformatic tools PICRUST and HUMAnN. Microbial composition and imputed function in HIV-positive individuals not receiving cART was significantly different from HIV-negative individuals. Genera including Roseburia, Coprococcus, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, Alistipes and Lachnospira were depleted in HIV-infected subjects not receiving cART, while Fusobacteria, Anaerococcus, Peptostreptococcus and Porphyromonas were significantly enriched. HIV-positive subjects receiving cART exhibited similar depletion and enrichment for these genera, but were of intermediate magnitude and did not achieve statistical significance. Imputed metagenomic functions, including amino acid metabolism, vitamin biosynthesis, and siderophore biosynthesis differed significantly between healthy controls and HIV-infected subjects not receiving cART. HIV infection was associated with rectal mucosal changes in microbiota composition and imputed function that cART failed to completely reverse. HIV infection was associated with depletion of some commensal species and enrichment of a few opportunistic pathogens. Many imputed metagenomic functions differed between samples from HIV-negative and HIV-positive subjects not receiving cART, possibly reflecting mucosal metabolic changes associated with HIV infection. Such functional pathways may represent novel interventional targets for HIV therapy if normalizing the microbial composition or functional activity of the microbiota proves therapeutically useful.
    01/2013; 1(1):26. DOI:10.1186/2049-2618-1-26
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Because of the increased life-expectancy of persons with HIV, the need for age-appropriate colorectal cancer screening among these patients will increase. We examined rates of colorectal cancer screening among HIV-infected men aged 50 to 65 years.Methods We used Ontario¿s administrative databases to identify all men between the ages of 50 and 65 years who were alive on April 1, 2007, and identified HIV-infected men using a validated case-finding algorithm. We excluded men with a history of colorectal cancer, anal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and any colorectal investigation in the preceding five-years, and used multivariable regression to compare rates of colorectal cancer screening between men with and without HIV during five years of follow-up.ResultsWe identified 743,801 men between the ages of 50 and 65 years, of whom 1,432 (0.19%) were HIV-infected. The proportions of men with and without HIV who underwent any screening during the 5-year follow up period were 49.1% (95% CI 46.5% to 51.7%) and 41.4% (95% CI 41.3% to 41.5%), respectively. Compared with HIV-negative men, men with HIV had lower rates of fecal occult blood testing [adjusted rate ratio (aRR) 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 0.87] and barium-enema radiography (aRR 0.66; 95% CI 0.39 to 1.12), but higher rates of colonoscopy (aRR 1.24; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.37), flexible sigmoidoscopy (aRR 1.72; 95% CI 1.28 to 2.30) and rigid sigmoidoscopy (aRR 2.98; 95% CI 2.26 to 3.93).Conclusion As with the general population of men aged 50 to 65 years, less than half of the population of men with HIV received colorectal cancer screening. Strategies are required to improve uptake of this intervention.
    BMC Health Services Research 02/2015; 15(1):51. DOI:10.1186/s12913-015-0711-9 · 1.66 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
47 Downloads
Available from
May 23, 2014