Autoantibodies in hepatitis C: Red flag or bystander effect?

Liver Diseases Branch, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.63). 03/2013; 56(3):243. DOI: 10.1097/MPG.0b013e3182774b04
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between the kidney and other organs is notable. The bestknown is the relation with the cardiovascular system. Relationships with other organs are less studied, although their involvement sometimes dominates the clinical picture and the outcome of disease. The paper analyzes the kidney-liver relationship, namely chronic kidney disease and chronic liver disease from an immune viewpoint. The immune system operates as a unitary whole. There is an interdependence between the immune system of the liver, considered a lymphoid organ, and the kidney, whose participation in immune processes is well-known. The most important chronic liver diseases are viral hepatitis B and C. Infection with these viruses can lead to renal involvement, producing mainly glomerular disease. At the same time, secondary glomerulonephritis can cause an unfavorable outcome of the primary disease. The relationship between chronic liver disease and chronic kidney disease during chronic B and C hepatitis occurs via circulating immune complexes or complexes formed in situ. Cell-mediated immunity is also involved. The antiviral treatment of B and C hepatitis is also aimed at secondary glomerular disease. The participation of immune mechanisms raises the question of administering immunomodulating medication, a type of medication that influences viral replication - this is why it is associated with antiviral medication. Other two chronic liver diseases, namely liver cirrhosis, in which the main mechanism is a toxic one, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis can produce via immune mechanisms glomerular involvement. In its turn, chronic kidney disease in advanced stages causes lipid metabolism disturbances with hypertriglyceridemia, which can influence fatty loading of the liver in the above-mentioned liver diseases. One can speak about a cross-talk between the liver and the kidney, in which immune mechanisms play an important role.
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