Additive preventive effect of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines in the elderly Results of a large cohort study
Elderly people are at increased risk of influenza and pneumococcal diseases. Influenza increases clinical pneumococcal disease incidence. Pneumococcal vaccination could therefore be a supplement to influenza vaccination. This study evaluated all-cause mortality and antibiotic consumption according to elderly people's influenza and pneumococcal vaccination status. Its goal was to demonstrate that vaccination with both Influenza and pneumococcal vaccines decrease all-cause mortality and antibiotic consumption. From 2004-10-01 to 2004-12-31 (3 mo), elderly people (≥ 65 y) who lived in the Gard department (South of France) were offered both vaccinations. Among the 68,897 subjects followed-up one year after this vaccination campaign, 21,303 (30.9%) were vaccinated with both vaccines, 18,651 (27.1%) with influenza vaccine alone, 3,769 (5.5%) with pneumococcal vaccine alone; 25,174 (36.5%) subjects were unvaccinated. Mortality rate (per 1,000 inhabitants-year) adjusted on gender, age and prior underlying chronic disease was 17.9 (95% CI: 16.3-19.6), 20.8 (19.0-22.8), 22.5 (19.0-26.6) and 24.7 (22.7-26.8), respectively. It was 42.1 (38.8-45.8) in elderly people with underlying chronic disease who received both vaccines vs. 58.1 (53.7-62.9) in unvaccinated elderly people. The decrease in mortality rate was 27.0% (20.0-34.0) in subjects who received both vaccines and 16.0% (6.0-24.0) in those who received influenza vaccine. No significant reduction in mortality rate was seen with the pneumococcal vaccine alone. Influenza and/or pneumococcal vaccinations did not decrease antibiotic consumption that drastically increases during the winter period. An additive effect was observed in the prevention of all-cause mortality with influenza and pneumococcal vaccines given together in elderly people, including in those with underlying chronic disease.
Available from: Mathias Pletz
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ABSTRACT: The aging immune system, so-called immunosenescence, is well documented as the cause of increased infection rates and severe, often complicated course of infections in the elderly with increased morbidity and mortality rates. Furthermore, it can lead to decreased efficacy of vaccination. The administration of more immunogenic vaccines can be beneficial in the elderly. Implementing vaccination recommendations for the elderly by STIKO can reduce burden of infectious diseases by prevention of infection or reduction of severity of infection. The following vaccinations are recommended by STIKO for all persons aged 60 and above: annual influenza vaccination (additionally all nursing home residents independently of age), once only pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination, completion of tetanus and diphtheria (Td) vaccination as well as regular revaccination. All adults should be vaccinated against pertussis with Tdap vaccine once. Meanwhile, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is allowed for administration in adults but is not recommended by STIKO yet. A lifelong course of vaccination may help to attenuate the effect of immunosenescence.
Zeitschrift für Gerontologie + Geriatrie 10/2013; 46(7):673-681. DOI:10.1007/s10405-011-0520-8 · 0.81 Impact Factor
Available from: Mehdi Mirsaeidi
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ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is a common and serious health problem that is best prevented by the pneumococcal vaccine. The first vaccine approved by the U.S. Federal Drug Administration in 1977 contained 14 polysaccharide antigens. An improved vaccine introduced in 1983 included 23 polysaccharide antigens. Both vaccines were effective for immunocompetent adults; however, young children and immunocompromised adults remained susceptible. A pediatric vaccine was developed consisting of the capsular antigens of seven pneumococcal serotypes commonly found in children. The antigens in this preparation are covalently conjugated to diphtheria protein to make them more antigenic. The conjugate vaccine was expanded to include 13 serotypes by 2010. Although more immunogenic, the conjugate vaccine has fewer serotypes than the older 23-valent vaccine. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that children at risk for pneumococcal pneumonia as defined by the presence of chronic disease should receive the 13-valent conjugated vaccine. Adults at risk for pneumococcal pneumonia, which includes those over 65 years of age and those who have a chronic disease, should receive the 23-polysaccharide vaccine. Immunosuppressed patients of any age should receive both vaccines. Adults should be revaccinated once at age 65 years or older with the 23-polysaccharide vaccine provided that at least 5 years have elapsed since the previous vaccination.
07/2014; 11(6):980-985. DOI:10.1513/AnnalsATS.201401-042CME
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ABSTRACT: Influenza A virus is a pathogen that is feared for its capacity to cause pandemics. In this review, we illustrate the clinical evidence which support the theory that bacterial co-infection is a considerable risk factor for exacerbated disease during pandemic and seasonal influenza, including infection with influenza B viruses. We provide an overview of the multiple and diverse mechanisms that help explain how influenza creates an opportunity for replication of secondary bacterial infections. Influenza vaccines and pneumococcal vaccines are widely used and often in overlapping target groups. We summarize the evidence for a protective effect of influenza immunization against bacterial infections, and vice versa of pneumococcal vaccines against influenza-associated pneumonia and lethality. It is important that future implementation of broadly protective influenza vaccines also takes into account protection against secondary bacterial infection.
Expert Review of Vaccines 09/2014; 14(1):1-13. DOI:10.1586/14760584.2015.957191 · 4.21 Impact Factor
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