Patellofemoral instability in skeletally immature athletes

Department of Orthopaedics, Penn State College of Medicine, 30 Hope Drive, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Impact Factor: 5.28). 01/2013; 95(2):176-83.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: As more children and adolescents are involved in sporting activities, the number of injuries to immature knees rises. We will focus on three entities: ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament, patellar dislocation, and meniscal injuries. There is a trend in recent literature toward early reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in children and adolescents. In this article, we will try to highlight the anatomic specialities and the diagnostic steps toward the correct diagnosis, review technical considerations and risks of the different surgical techniques, and present outcomes and offer a treatment recommendation. The treatment of patellar dislocation has changed considerably since we gained a better understanding of the unique anatomy of the patellofemoral joint. We will show diagnostic steps and risk factors for recurrent patellar dislocation, discuss conservative and different operative therapy options, and present a modified technique to achieve a dynamic reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament without damage to the growth plates. Meniscal tears and discoid menisci are rare in comparison to the other injuries. We will herein explain what specialities in the anatomy should be considered in children and adolescents concerning the menisci, and present the diagnostic steps and treatment options available.
    European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery 09/2013; 2014(40):23-36. DOI:10.1007/s00068-013-0339-6 · 0.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance is a useful tool in guiding surgical management for patients with recurrent lateral patellar instability. Current recommendations for tibial tubercle transfer are based on TT-TG distance thresholds derived from adult populations. Recurrent patellar instability, however, frequently affects children, but normal and pathological TT-TG values have not been established for pediatric patients. The objectives of this study were to (1) confirm that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements for TT-TG distance in a pediatric population are reliable and reproducible, (2) determine whether the TT-TG distance changes with age, (3) define normal TT-TG distances in a pediatric population, and (4) confirm that a subgroup of pediatric patients with patellar instability have higher TT-TG distances. Six hundred and eighteen MRIs were retrospectively collected for patients who were nine months to sixteen years old. Each MRI was measured twice in a blinded, randomized manner by each reviewer. Patient age, sex, knee laterality, magnet strength, underlying diagnosis, and pertinent previous surgical treatments were all recorded separately from the measurements. MRIs that were unreadable and those of patients who had previous extensor mechanism surgery, preexisting deformity, or destructive neoplasms were excluded. There was excellent intraobserver and interobserver reliability of TT-TG distance measurements. TT-TG distance was associated with the natural logarithm of age (p < 0.001). A percentile-based growth chart was created to demonstrate this relationship. The median TT-TG distance for patients without patellar instability in this pediatric population was 8.5 mm (mean and 95% confidence interval, 8.6 ± 0.3 mm). Patients with patellar instability had higher TT-TG distances (median, 12.1 mm; p < 0.001). TT-TG distance measured nearly 2 mm less on MRIs performed with a 3-T magnet than on those acquired with a 1.5-T magnet (p < 0.001). TT-TG distance changes with chronologic age in the pediatric population. As such, we developed a percentile-based growth chart in order to better depict normal TT-TG distances in the pediatric population. Like many issues in pediatric orthopaedics, an age-based approach for directing surgical treatment may be more appropriate for skeletally immature individuals with recurrent lateral patellar instability. Diagnostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
    The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 02/2014; 96(4):318-324. DOI:10.2106/JBJS.M.00688 · 5.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A comprehensive and thorough selection of contributions from across the world, this book aims to review the current state-of-the-art in assessment and management of the patellofemoral joint. While featuring a wide range of surgical techniques for different pathologies, detailed attention is also devoted to conservative treatment and approaches involving mesenchymal stem cells, autologous chondrocyte implantation, platelet-rich plasma, and pulsed electromagnetic fields. Anatomy, clinical examination, and methods of evaluation are discussed, and individual chapters address important miscellaneous topics, including rehabilitation, complications of surgery, injuries in specific patient populations, and scoring systems. Though patellofemoral joint pathology is a frequent clinical problem, its management remains challenging for the orthopaedic surgeon. Conceived at the ISAKOS Congress held in Toronto in June 2013 as a small booklet, this work quickly turned into a major project involving more than 35 authors worldwide. The editors believe that this book will be of great value to orthopaedic doctors to improve understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of future patients.
    The Patellofemoral Joint, Edited by Alberto Gobbi, João Espregueira-Mendes, Norimasa Nakamura, 03/2014: chapter 26: pages 199-206; Springer., ISBN: 978-3-642-54964-9