EGFR Gene Copy Number as a Prognostic Marker in Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated with Cetuximab or Panitumumab: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis

Department of Colorectal Cancer Surgery, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 02/2013; 8(2):e56205. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056205
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene copy number (GCN) has been previously demonstrated to correlate with the clinical outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), although it remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess EGFR GCN as a potential biomarker of survival for patients with advanced CRC receiving treatment with anti-EGFR mAbs.
We systematically identified articles investigating EGFR GCN by fluorescent or chromogenic in situ hybridization or other detection techniques in patients with metastatic CRC treated with panitumumab or cetuximab, (last search: 10 August 2012). Eligible studies had to report on overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) or time-toprogression (TTP), stratified by EGFR GCN. Summary hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using random-effects models.
Among 13 identified studies, 10 (776 patients, 302 with increased GCN), 8 (893 patients, 282 with increased GCN) and 3 (149 patients, 66 with increased GCN) were eligible for the OS, PFS and TTP meta-analyses, respectively. Increased EGFR GCN was associated with increased OS (HR = 0.62; 95% CI 0.50-0.77; P<0.001), PFS (HR = 0.65; 95% CI 0.47-0.89; P = 0.008) but not TTP (HR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.44-1.14; P = 0.157). It was also shown that EGFR GCN is independent of other factors such as KRAS status. Among those populations received second-line or higher treatment, increased EGFR GCN was strongly associated with improved survival (for OS, HR = 0.60; 95% CI 0.47-0.75; P<0.001; for PFS, HR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.47-0.75; P<0.001), whereas it did not influence survival in patients that received first-line therapy.
Among the anti-EGFR-treated patients, increased EGFR GCN appears to be associated with improved survival outcomes. The effect on survival appears to be related to patients receiving the line of treatment.

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    ABSTRACT: Background EGFR overexpression is a prognostic biomarker and is expected to be a predictive biomarker for anti-EGFR therapies in gastric cancer. However, few studies have reported the clinical impact of EGFR gene copy number (GCN) and its correlation with EGFR overexpression. Methods We used dual in situ hybridization (DISH) to detect EGFR GCN and chromosome 7 centromere (CEN7) in a set of tissue microarrays representing 855 patients with gastric cancer. These data were compared with those of immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of EGFR expression to evaluate prognostic value. Results EGFR GCN gain (≥2.5 EGFR signals per cell) was detected in 194 patients (22.7 %) and indicated poor prognosis. Among 194 patients, EGFR amplification (EGFR/CEN7 ≥ 2.0) was observed in 29 patients (14.9 %), which was almost identical to the IHC 3+ subgroup and worst prognostic subgroup. Patients with EGFR GCN gain but not amplification, including those exhibiting polysomy, also exhibited poorer prognosis than GCN non-gain patients and were distributed between IHC 0/1+ and 2+ subgroups. GCN gain was frequently observed in patients with more advanced disease, but served as an independent prognostic factor regardless of the pathological stage. Conclusions EGFR GCN gain is a more accurate prognostic biomarker than EGFR overexpression in patients with gastric cancer.
    Gastric Cancer 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10120-014-0449-9 · 4.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Administration of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) such as cetuximab and panitumumab in combination with conventional chemotherapy substantially prolongs survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the efficacy of these mAbs is limited due to genetic variation among patients, in particular K-ras mutations. The discovery of K-ras mutation as a predictor of non-responsiveness to EGFR mAb therapy has caused a major change in the treatment of mCRC. Drugs that inhibit transformation caused by oncogenic alterations of Ras and its downstream components such as BRAF, MEK and AKT seem to be promising cancer therapeutics as single agents or when given with EGFR inhibitors. Although multiple therapeutic strategies to overcome EGFR mAb-resistance are under investigation, our understanding of their mode of action is limited. Rational drug development based on stringent preclinical data, biomarker validation, and proper selection of patients is of paramount importance in the treatment of mCRC. In this review, we will discuss diverse approaches to overcome the problem of resistance to existing anti-EGFR therapies and potential future directions for cancer therapies related to the mutational status of genes associated with EGFR-Ras-ERK and PI3K signalings.
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in western countries. Despite significant improvement in available treatment options, CRC still remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Traditionally, 5-fluorouracil has been used as the main chemotherapy drug for treatment of metastatic CRC (mCRC). However, during the last two decades more effective chemotherapeutic agents such as oxaliplatin, irinotecan and the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab, panitumumab and bevacizumab have been used in clinical practice. More recently, the therapeutic armamentarium has been supplemented by the monoclonal antibodies bevacizumab, cetuximab and panitumumab as well as the protein-trap aflibercept and the small molecule multi-kinase inhibitor regorafenib. One of the major problems for the management of CRC is the inherent or acquired resistance to therapeutic approaches. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of small, endogenous, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs that play a role as post-transcriptional regulators, has added new dimensions to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Because miRNAs are important regulators of carcinogenesis, progression, invasion, angiogenesis and metastases in CRC, they might serve as potential predictive and prognostic factors and even as therapeutic targets themselves. Several miRNAs are already known to be dysregulated in CRCs and have been linked to biological processes involved in tumor progression and response to anti-cancer therapies. This review summarizes current therapeutic approaches for treating CRC and highlights the role of miRNAs as novel predictive biomarkers and potential drug targets in CRC patients.

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