The burden of noncommunicable diseases is rising in India. A high prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases in perimenopausal women in the community makes them vulnerable to chronic kidney diseases (CKD). A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among women >35 years of age in the village of Ballabgarh, Haryana (north India). Eligible women were selected by the probability proportionate to size sampling method. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was carried out by using the age- and body surface area (BSA)-adjusted Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) equations. Association of risk factors such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus with CKD was also assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 455 women were studied. The prevalence of low GFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) by the CG/BSA equations and MDRD equation was found to be 18.2% (95% confidence interval 14.6, 21.8) and 5.9% (95% confidence interval 3.7, 8.1), respectively. Obesity (odds ratio 15.5) (P = 0.002), hyperlipidemia (odds ratio: 2.5) (P = 0.017), and age (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with reduced GFR on multivariate logistic regression analysis. This study observed a high prevalence of CKD and its risk factors among perimenopausal women in a rural community in north India. The study highlights the need of a multipronged, community-based intervention strategy that includes a high-risk screening approach and awareness generation about CKD and its risk factors in the community.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to explore the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in perimenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhuhai from June to October 2012. Perimenopausal women (n = 685) were included in the study. All participants were divided into three subgroups: Group 1, 40 years old ≤ Age < 50 years old; Group 2, 50 years old ≤ Age < 60 years old; Group 3, 60 years old ≤ Age ≤ 65 years old. MetS was associated with CKD (p < 0.01) in the unadjusted analyses in total subjects. After adjusting the potential confounders, the odd ratios of CKD for MetS was 2.66 (95% CI 1.56 to 4.49, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between MetS and CKD in both Group 1 and Group 3. MetS was associated with CKD (p < 0.001) in the unadjusted analyses in Group 2. After adjusting for potential confounders, MetS was significantly associated with CKD. The odd ratios for MetS was 6.79 (95% CI 2.30 to 20.09, p < 0.001). There was no relationship between elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting glucose, abdominal obesity, Low HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and CKD in both Group 1 and Group 3. Elevated blood pressure was associated with CKD in Group 2 (unadjusted Odds ratio: 4.52 (1.28-16.02), p = 0.02). After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no relationship between elevated blood pressure and CKD (p = 0.78). Elevated fasting glucose was associated with CKD in Group 2 (unadjusted Odds ratio: 3.69 (1.10-12.38), p = 0.03). After adjusting for potential confounders, there was no relationship between elevated fasting glucose and CKD (p = 0.15). There was no relationship between abdominal obesity, Low HDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and CKD in Group 2. These findings suggest that in perimenopausal women aged from 50 or older to 60 MetS was associated with CKD. There is no relationship between MetS and CKD in perimenopausal women aged from 40 or older to 50 and aged from 60 or older to 65.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 09/2013; 10(9):3987-97. DOI:10.3390/ijerph10093987 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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