Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for heavy menstrual bleeding
ABSTRACT Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is an important cause of ill health in premenopausal women. Although surgery is often used as a treatment, a range of medical therapies are also available. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce prostaglandin levels, which are elevated in women with excessive menstrual bleeding and also may have a beneficial effect on dysmenorrhoea.
The primary objective of this review was to investigate the effectiveness of NSAIDs in achieving a reduction in menstrual blood loss in women of reproductive years with HMB.
We searched the Cochrane Menstrual Disorders & Subfertility Group trials register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL in July 2012 and reference lists of articles. We also contacted manufacturers and researchers in the field.
The inclusion criteria were randomised comparisons of individual NSAIDs or combined with other medical therapy with either each other, placebo or other medical treatments in women with regular heavy periods measured either objectively or subjectively and with no pathological or iatrogenic (treatment-induced) causes for their heavy menstrual blood loss.
Eighteen RCTs were identified that fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review and data were extracted independently. Odds ratios for dichotomous outcomes and weighted mean differences for continuous outcomes were estimated from the data of nine trials. The results of the remaining seven cross-over trials with data unsuitable for pooling, one trial with skewed data and one trial with missing variances were described in data tables.
As a group, NSAIDs were more effective than placebo at reducing HMB but less effective than either tranexamic acid, danazol or the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS). Treatment with danazol caused a shorter duration of menstruation and more adverse events than NSAIDs but this did not appear to affect the acceptability of treatment. There were no statistically significant differences between NSAIDs and the other treatments (oral luteal progestogen, ethamsylate, an older progesterone-releasing intrauterine system (Progestasert), oral contraceptive pill (OCC)) but most studies were underpowered. There was no evidence of a difference between the individual NSAIDs (naproxen and mefenamic acid) in reducing HMB.
NSAIDs reduce HMB when compared with placebo but are less effective than tranexamic acid, danazol or LNG IUS. However, adverse events are more severe with danazol therapy. In the limited number of small studies suitable for evaluation, no significant difference in efficacy was demonstrated between NSAIDs and other medical treatments such as oral luteal progestogen, ethamsylate, OCC or another type of intrauterine system, Progestasert.
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ABSTRACT: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common medical condition with several causes. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics published guidelines in 2011 to develop universally accepted nomenclature and a classification system. In addition, the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recently updated recommendations on evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding and indications for endometrial biopsies. This article reviews both medical and surgical treatments, including meta-analysis reviews of the most effective treatment options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 03/2015; 42(1):103-115. DOI:10.1016/j.ogc.2014.09.006 · 1.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a major health problem and it is a substantial cause of ill health in women. Medical treatment has a high failure rate and adverse effects. There are few published data on hysteroscopic endometrial resection (HER) in the management of patients with AUB. Objective: To investigate the efficacy and outcomes of hysteroscopic endometrial resection (HER) in patients with AUB. Materials and Methods: A descriptive hospital - based study was carried out at the departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Misurata and Sirt, Libya, during the period from January 2009 to December 2013. Women with AUB were recruited in the study. All women had a detailed medical and obstetrical history, physical examination and the hysteroscopic endometrial ablation and were followed-up for success or failure of the procedure which was assessed via symptoms (bleeding). Results: A total of 120 women with mean (SD) of age and parity of 42.3 (6.8) years and 3.8 (2.4), respectively were recruited in the study initially. Thirty (25%) of these women were lost of followup Therefore, only 70 women (50 with DUB, and 20 women with fibroids) were available for the final analysis. All women underwent hysteroscopic endometrial resection and 28 of them had hysteroscopic myomectomy. The success rate was 92.8% (65/70) after 2 years follow up. All the five women with failure of the procedure were younger (<40 years); had bleeding with dysmenorrhea, bigger uterine size, thicker endometrium (> 7 mm) and they had fibroids. Conclusions: Endometrial resection is an effective procedure in the majority of women with AUB, especially in those over age of 40 and without an increase in uterine size and has no fibroids.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: A wide range of herbal plants have been reported to treat various gynecological problems of women. This study was set out to investigate the effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) in high school girls. Methods: Ninety-two young women who experienced HMB and met the inclusion criteria were recruited in this study. Participants were evaluated for six consecutive menstrual cycles. During 3 assessment cycles, their HMB was confirmed by Pictorial Blood Assessment Chart. They were then randomly allocated to two study groups to receive either ginger or placebo capsules. The participants filled in the same chart during three intervention cycles. Results: The level of menstrual blood loss dramatically declined during the three intervention cycles in ginger-receiving group. The decrease of blood loss in ginger-receiving group was significantly more remarkable than that of participants receiving placebo (p < 0.001). Minimum number of participants reported adverse effects. Conclusion: HMB is highly prevalent among young women. Considering the significance of appropriate and timely treatment and also the importance of prevention of unwanted consequences, ginger may be considered as an effective therapeutic option for HMB. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Phytotherapy Research 09/2014; 29(1). DOI:10.1002/ptr.5235 · 2.40 Impact Factor