Prevention of vascular injury by combination of an AT1 receptor blocker, olmesartan, with various calcium antagonists.
ABSTRACT A combination of different types of antihypertensive drugs is widely used for the treatment of hypertension. We examined the inhibitory effects of a combination of an AT(1) receptor blocker (ARB), olmesartan, with various calcium channel blockers (CCBs) on inflammatory vascular remodeling.
Inflammatory vascular remodeling was induced by polyethylene-cuff placement around the femoral artery of C57BL/6J mice at 10 weeks of age. Olmesartan (0.5 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally using an osmotic minipump. CCBs (nifedipine 1.0 mg/kg/day, amlodipine 0.1 mg/kg/day, azelnidipine 0.1 mg/kg/day), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ 0.5 mg/kg/day) were administered orally.
In the injured artery, superoxide anion production and expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits p47(phox) and Rac-1 were markedly increased, together with expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Administration of a single drug alone at each concentration did not significantly inhibit these changes in the injured artery. However, a combination of olmesartan with various CCBs inhibited neointimal formation as well as oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in the injured artery. Moreover, among these CCBs, inhibition of these markers by olmesartan with azelnidipine was stronger than that caused by a combination with other CCBs. On the other hand, a combination of subeffective doses of olmesartan and HCTZ did not significantly affect vascular changes after cuff placement.
These results suggest that the combination of ARB with CCB synergistically inhibits vascular remodeling and that the inhibitory actions of ARB on vascular remodeling may vary depending on the combined CCB.
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ABSTRACT: Many studies have aimed to identify anti-atherogenic agents in cardiovascular medicine. We have recently demonstrated that the combination therapy with olmesartan (OLM), an angiotensin II receptor blocker, and azelnidipine (AZL), a dihydroprydine calcium-channel blocker, improves endothelial function in diabetic Apolipoprotein-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice. In the present study, we examined whether this combination therapy also inhibits atherosclerosis in mice. We used male control and streptozocin-induced diabetic ApoE(-/-) mice. Diabetic ApoE(-/-) mice were orally treated for 5 weeks with vehicle (Untreated), OLM (30 mg/kg/day), AZL (10 mg/kg/day), their combination (OLM+AZL), or hydralazine (HYD, 5 mg/kg/day) as an antihypertensive control. At 5 weeks, systolic blood pressure was significantly elevated in Untreated but was normalized in OLM+AZL and HYD. The atherosclerosis area in the thoracic aorta, perivascular fibrosis and medial thickness of the coronary arteries were increased in Untreated and were ameliorated in OLM+AZL but not in HYD. Staining with a fluorescent probe dihydroethidium showed that production of reactive oxygen species was increased in Untreated, and ameliorated in OLM+AZL. Consistent with these findings, macrophage infiltration in the kidney and the expression of receptor for advanced glycation end-products in the heart, kidney and liver were increased in Untreated and were all ameliorated in OLM+AZL, associated with up-regulation of endothelial NO syntheses (eNOS). In conclusion, the combination therapy with OLM and AZL exerts anti-atherogenic effect in diabetic ApoE(-/-) mice through suppression of oxidative stress and activation of eNOS, independent of its blood pressure-lowering effects. Clinically, this combination therapy may be useful for patients with hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes.The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 12/2012; 228(4):305-15. DOI:10.1620/tjem.228.305 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The analytical-numerical method of electrical wave diffraction by a bounded sequence of periodical irises in a circular waveguide has been suggested. It is based on the idea of the partial inversion of the diffraction problem operator.
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ABSTRACT: Cilnidipine is an L- and N-type calcium channel blocker (CCB), and amlodipine is an L-type CCB. Valsartan (10 mg kg(-1)), valsartan (10 mg kg(-1)) and amlodipine (1 mg kg(-1)), and valsartan (10 mg kg(-1)) and cilnidipine (1 mg kg(-1)) were administered once daily for 2 weeks to stroke-prone, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-SPs). Blood pressure was significantly reduced by valsartan, and it was further reduced by the combination therapies. Vascular endothelial dysfunction was significantly attenuated in all therapeutic groups, and further significant attenuation was observed in the valsartan+cilnidipine-treated group, but not in the valsartan+amlodipine-treated group. Vascular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunit NOX1 gene expression was significantly attenuated in all therapeutic groups, and significantly greater attenuation was observed in the valsartan+cilnidipine-treated group than in the valsartan-treated group. Compared with the valsartan-treated group, the positive areas for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal were significantly lower only in the valsartan+cilnidipine-treated group. Plasma renin activity was significantly augmented in the valsartan-treated group, and it was significantly attenuated in the valsartan+cilnidipine-treated group. A significant increase in the ratio of plasma angiotensin-(1-7) to angiotensin II was observed only in the valsartan+cilnidipine-treated group. Vascular angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression was significantly attenuated only in the valsartan+cilnidipine-treated group, but ACE2 gene expression was significantly higher in all of the therapeutic groups. Thus, valsartan and cilnidipine combination therapy might have a powerful protective effect in the vascular tissues via increases in the angiotensin-(1-7)/angiotensin II ratio in plasma.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 29 November 2012; doi:10.1038/hr.2012.187.Hypertension Research 11/2012; 36(4). DOI:10.1038/hr.2012.187 · 2.94 Impact Factor