Prevention of vascular injury by combination of an AT1 receptor blocker, olmesartan, with various calcium antagonists.
ABSTRACT A combination of different types of antihypertensive drugs is widely used for the treatment of hypertension. We examined the inhibitory effects of a combination of an AT(1) receptor blocker (ARB), olmesartan, with various calcium channel blockers (CCBs) on inflammatory vascular remodeling.
Inflammatory vascular remodeling was induced by polyethylene-cuff placement around the femoral artery of C57BL/6J mice at 10 weeks of age. Olmesartan (0.5 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally using an osmotic minipump. CCBs (nifedipine 1.0 mg/kg/day, amlodipine 0.1 mg/kg/day, azelnidipine 0.1 mg/kg/day), and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ 0.5 mg/kg/day) were administered orally.
In the injured artery, superoxide anion production and expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits p47(phox) and Rac-1 were markedly increased, together with expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Administration of a single drug alone at each concentration did not significantly inhibit these changes in the injured artery. However, a combination of olmesartan with various CCBs inhibited neointimal formation as well as oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in the injured artery. Moreover, among these CCBs, inhibition of these markers by olmesartan with azelnidipine was stronger than that caused by a combination with other CCBs. On the other hand, a combination of subeffective doses of olmesartan and HCTZ did not significantly affect vascular changes after cuff placement.
These results suggest that the combination of ARB with CCB synergistically inhibits vascular remodeling and that the inhibitory actions of ARB on vascular remodeling may vary depending on the combined CCB.
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