The Effect of Voluntary Iodine Prophylaxis in a Small Rural Community: The Pescopagano Survey 15 Years Later
ABSTRACT Context: Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem, and programs have been implemented to improve iodine nutrition. Objective: The objective of the study was to verify the effects of voluntary iodine prophylaxis in a small rural community (Pescopagano, Italy). Design: The design of the study was the evaluation of the prevalence of thyroid disorders 15 years after a previous survey conducted before iodine prophylaxis. Setting: The setting for this study was a general community survey. Participants: One thousand one hundred forty-eight residents were examined in 2010 and 1411 in 1995. Results: In 2010, 757 of 1148 subjects (65.9%) routinely used iodized salt, urinary iodine excretion being significantly higher than in 1955 (median 98.0 μg/L, vs 55.0 μg/L, P < .0001). The prevalence of goiter was lower in 2010 than in 1995 (25.8% vs 46.1%, P < .0001), mainly due to the reduction of diffuse goiter (10.3% vs 34.0%, P < .0001). In 2010 vs 1995, thyroid autonomy in subjects younger than 45 years old (3 of 579, 0.5% vs 25 of 1010, 2.5% P = .004) and nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism in subjects older than 45 years old (8 of 569, 1.4% vs 18 of 401, 4.5%, P = .03) were less frequent. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was higher in 2010 vs 1995 (5.0% vs 2.8%, P = .005), mainly because of an increased frequency of subclinical hypothyroidism in subjects younger than 15 years old (7 of 83, 8.4% vs 0 of 419, 0.0%, P < .0001). Accordingly, serum thyroid autoantibodies (19.5% vs 12.6%; P < .0001) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (14.5% vs 3.5%; P < .0001) were more frequent in 2010 than in 1995. Conclusions: In the present work, the role of voluntary iodine prophylaxis was assessed in a small rural community relatively segregated, in which genetic and other environmental factors have not substantially changed between the 2 surveys. Iodine intake strongly affected the pattern of thyroid diseases, but the benefits of correcting iodine deficiency (decreased prevalence of goiter and thyroid autonomy in younger subjects and reduced frequency of nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism in older subjects) far outweighs the risk of development of thyroid autoimmunity and mild hypothyroidism in youngsters.
SourceAvailable from: Salvatore Maria Corsello[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Iodine supplementation through salt iodization is a worldwide, effective strategy for preventing iodine deficiency-related problems. Its safety and efficacy profile has been extensively investigated, and benefits far outweigh the potential iodine-induced risks. Moreover, iodine supplementation during pregnancy in order to avoid brain damage in the newborn is considered a mainstay of preventive medicine. Exposure to high amounts of iodine is actually well tolerated in most cases and can be unrecognized. Nevertheless, at-risk individuals may develop thyroid dysfunction even when they are exposed to increases in iodine intake universally considered as safe. Iodine-induced thyroid disorders include thyroid autoimmunity, thyrotoxicosis, iodine-induced goiter, and hypothyroidism. Moreover, a relationship between iodine intake and histotype distribution of differentiated thyroid cancer has been observed, with a progressive shift from follicular to papillary thyroid cancer. To date, evaluating iodine status in a clinical setting has limitations, and assessing the actual risk for each individual can be challenging, since it is influenced by personal history, genetics, and environmental factors. In conclusion, iodine supplementation programs need to be continued and strengthened, but iodine should be used "with a grain of salt," because a growing number of susceptible individuals will be exposed to the risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid disorders.International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2015; 2015:312305. DOI:10.1155/2015/312305 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This review focuses on two different topics: (a) iodine and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) and (b) AITD and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Iodine intake modifies the expression of thyroid diseases and has been associated with induction of AITD. Thyroglobulin (Tg) is an important target in iodine-induced autoimmune response due to post-translational modifications of iodinated Tg, as suggested in animal models. We have shown that the unmasking of a cryptic epitope on Tg contributes to iodine-induced thyroid autoimmunity in humans. The relationship between AITD and PTC has been suggested in many studies. The presence of two different mechanisms has been hypothesized, one typical of AITD and the other of an immune reaction to PTC. We have shown that in AITD, the pattern of Tg recognition by anti-Tg antibodies (TgAb) is 'restricted' to the immunodominant regions of Tg, while in patients with non-AITD, such as nodular goiter and PTC devoid of thyroid lymphocytic infiltration at histology, TgAb show a less restricted epitopic pattern and bind also to other regions of Tg. Thyroid function may also affect the frequency of PTC, the risk of cancer increasing with serum TSH levels. We have shown that this mechanism, rather than thyroiditis per se, plays a major role in the association of PTC with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, as a consequence of the autoimmune process leading to a progressive increase of serum TSH in these patients.03/2015; 4(1):26-35. DOI:10.1159/000371741