Dynamic contrast-enhanced subtraction MRI for characterizing intratesticular mass lesions.

Department of Clinical Radiology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Leoforos S. Niarchou, 45500, Platia Pargis, 2, 45332, Ioannina, Greece.
American Journal of Roentgenology (Impact Factor: 2.74). 03/2013; 200(3):578-85. DOI: 10.2214/AJR.12.9064
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective of our study was to analyze the enhancement patterns of various intratesticular mass lesions at dynamic contrast-enhanced subtraction MRI and assess the value of the technique in distinguishing between benign and malignant lesions.
We retrospectively evaluated the records and images of 44 consecutive men (11 benign and 16 malignant intratesticular lesions) who presented to the department of urology with a variety of clinical symptoms and were referred for imaging. Dynamic contrast-enhanced subtraction MRI was performed using a 3D fast-field echo sequence after the administration of paramagnetic contrast medium. Patients were divided into three groups according to the final diagnosis: benign intratesticular lesions, malignant intratesticular lesions, and normal testes. The patterns of contrast enhancement of both the normal testes and the intratesticular lesions were evaluated. Time-signal intensity plots were created and classified according to shape: Type I presented a linear increase of contrast enhancement throughout the examination, type II showed an initial upstroke followed by either a plateau or a gradual increase in the late contrast-enhanced phase, and type III presented an initial upstroke followed by gradual washout of the contrast medium. The relative percentages of peak height, maximum time, and mean slope were also calculated.
Normal testes enhanced homogeneously with a type I curve. Most benign intratesticular lesions showed inhomogeneous or homogeneous contrast enhancement and a type II curve. Testicular carcinomas showed heterogeneous contrast enhancement with a type III curve. The relative percentages of maximum time to peak proved the most important discriminating factor in differentiating malignant from benign intratesticular masses (p < 0.001).
Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI may be used to distinguish between benign and malignant intratesticular mass lesions.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The usefulness of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in the evaluation of scrotal pathology has recently been reported. A standard reference of normal testicular apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and their variations with age is necessary when interpreting normal testicular anatomy and pathology. We evaluated 147 normal testes using DWI, including 71 testes from 53 men aged 20-39 years (group 1), 67 testes from 42 men aged 40-69 years (group 2) and nine testes from six men older than 70 years (group 3). DWI was performed along the axial plane, using a single shot, multislice spin-echo planar diffusion pulse sequence and b-values of 0 and 900 s mm-2 . The mean and standard deviation of the ADC values of normal testicular parenchyma were calculated for each age group separately. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post hoc analysis (Dunnett T3) was used for statistical purposes. The ADC values (× 10-3 mm 2 s-1 ) of normal testicular tissue were different among age groups (group 1: 1.08 ± 0.13; group 2: 1.15 ± 0.15 and group 3: 1.31 ± 0.22). ANOVA revealed differences in mean ADC among age groups (F = 11.391, P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis showed differences between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.008) and between groups 1 and 3 (P = 0.043), but not between groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.197). Our findings suggest that ADC values of normal testicular tissue increase with advancing age.
    Asian Journal of Andrology 02/2014; · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ablation of the testis has been the reference standard for malignant and benign testicular tumors in the past. Nowadays, an organ-sparing surgery (OSS) can be attempted in special cases. Removal of a testis for a benign lesion should be avoided. In this retrospective survey, we analyze the results and long-term follow-up of OSS in benign testicular tumors. Charts of all patients that underwent OSS because of a benign testicular tumor between 1999 and 2011 at our department were searched and the data from patients were collected. Before surgery, all patients underwent ultrasound (US) and complete staging. Surgery was performed under US or palpation guidance. Frozen-section examination of the tumor and tumor bed biopsies was obtained. All patients underwent postoperative follow-up. We retrospectively reviewed surgical technique, histology, epidemiology, and outcome in all patients. In the study period, 40 benign testicular tumors were surgically removed in 37 consecutive patients. Definitive histology did not report of any malignant histopathologic features in all patients. All patients are free of disease after a mean follow-up of 63 months (range 10-120). During this period, two patients developed a second leydig cell tumor (LCT) on the contralateral side; another patient had a second LCT within the same testicle, but on the opposite pole. All patients underwent a subsequent organ-sparing tumor resection. An overtreatment for benign testicular tumors should be avoided. Our initial results indicate that OSS in benign tumors is a safe, feasible treatment for patients.
    World Journal of Urology 10/2013; · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the scrotum has been used as a valuable supplemental diagnostic modality in evaluating scrotal pathology, mostly recommended in cases of inconclusive sonographic findings. Because of the advantages of the technique, MR imaging of the scrotum may provide valuable information in the detection and characterization of various scrotal diseases. The technique may accurately differentiate intratesticular from extratesticular mass lesions and provide important information in the preoperative characterization of the histologic nature of scrotal masses. An accurate estimation of the local extent of testicular carcinomas in patients for whom testis-sparing surgery is planned is possible.
    Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America 05/2014; 22(2):217-238.