Localized Immunotherapy via Liposome-Anchored Anti-CD137+IL-2 Prevents Lethal Toxicity and Elicits Local and Systemic Antitumor Immunity
ABSTRACT Immunostimulatory agonists such as anti-CD137 and interleukin (IL)-2 have elicited potent antitumor immune responses in preclinical studies, but their clinical use is limited by inflammatory toxicities that result upon systemic administration. We hypothesized that by rigorously restricting the biodistribution of immunotherapeutic agents to a locally accessible lesion and draining lymph node(s), effective local and systemic antitumor immunity could be achieved in the absence of systemic toxicity. We anchored anti-CD137 and an engineered IL-2Fc fusion protein to the surfaces of PEGylated liposomes, whose physical size permitted dissemination in the tumor parenchyma and tumor-draining lymph nodes but blocked entry into the systemic circulation following intratumoral injection. In the B16F10 melanoma model, intratumoral liposome-coupled anti-CD137 + IL-2Fc therapy cured a majority of established primary tumors while avoiding the lethal inflammatory toxicities caused by equivalent intratumoral doses of soluble immunotherapy. Immunoliposome therapy induced protective antitumor memory and elicited systemic antitumor immunity that significantly inhibited the growth of simultaneously established distal tumors. Tumor inhibition was CD8 T-cell-dependent and was associated with increased CD8 T-cell infiltration in both treated and distal tumors, enhanced activation of tumor antigen-specific T cells in draining lymph nodes, and a reduction in regulatory T cells in treated tumors. These data suggest that local nanoparticle-anchored delivery of immuno-agonists represents a promising strategy to improve the therapeutic window and clinical applicability of highly potent but otherwise intolerable regimens of cancer immunotherapy. Cancer Res; 73(5); 1547-58. ©2012 AACR.
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ABSTRACT: In adoptive cell therapy (ACT), autologous tumor-specific T-cells isolated from cancer patients are activated and expanded ex vivo, then infused back into the individual to eliminate metastatic tumors. A major limitation of this promising approach is the rapid loss of ACT T-cell effector function in vivo due to the highly immunosuppressive environment in tumors. Protection of T-cells from immunosuppressive signals can be achieved by systemic administration of supporting adjuvant drugs such as interleukins, chemotherapy, and other immunomodulators, but these adjuvant treatments are often accompanied by serious toxicities and may still fail to optimally stimulate lymphocytes in all tumor and lymphoid compartments. Here we propose a novel strategy to repeatedly stimulate or track ACT T-cells, using cytokines or ACT-cell-specific antibodies as ligands to target PEGylated liposomes to transferred T-cells in vivo. Using F(ab')2 fragments against a unique cell surface antigen on ACT cells (Thy1.1) or an engineered interleukin-2 (IL-2) molecule on an Fc framework as targeting ligands, we demonstrate that >95% of ACT cells can be conjugated with liposomes following a single injection in vivo. Further, we show that IL-2-conjugated liposomes both target ACT cells and are capable of inducing repeated waves of ACT T-cell proliferation in tumor-bearing mice. These results demonstrate the feasibility of repeated functional targeting of T-cells in vivo, which will enable delivery of imaging contrast agents, immunomodulators, or chemotherapy agents in adoptive cell therapy regimens.Journal of Controlled Release 06/2013; 172(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2013.05.037 · 7.26 Impact Factor
Article: Cancer vaccines: Material breach.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An experimental vaccine implanted beneath the skin could usher in biomaterial-based immunotherapies for cancer.Nature 12/2013; 504(7480):S16-7. DOI:10.1038/504S16a · 42.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Liposomes are lipid based vesicular systems that offer novel platform for versatile drug delivery to target cell. Liposomes were first reported by Bangham and his co-workers in 1964 (1). Since then, liposomes have undergone extensive research with the prime aim to optimize encapsulation, stability, circulation time and target specific drug delivery. Manipulation of a liposome's lipid bilayer and surface decoration with selective ligands has transformed conventional liposomes into adaptable and multifunctional liposomes. Development of liposomes with target specificity provide the prospect of safe and effective therapy for challenging clinical applications. Bioresponsive liposomes offer the opportunity to release payload in response to tissue specific microenvironment. Incorporation of novel natural and synthetic materials has extended their application from stable formulations to controlled release targeted drug delivery systems. Integration and optimization of multiple features into one system revolutionized research in the field of cancer, gene therapy, immunotherapy and infectious diseases. After 50 years since the first publication, this review is aimed to highlight next generation of liposomes, their preparation methods and progress in clinical applications. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.