CK2beta is expressed in endometrial carcinoma and has a role in apoptosis resistance and cell proliferation.
ABSTRACT Protein kinase CK2 (CK2) is a serine/threonine kinase that participates in important cellular processes. We have recently demonstrated that CK2 plays a role in resistance to TRAIL/Fas-induced apoptosis in endometrial carcinoma (EC) by regulating FLIP. Here, we assessed the immunohistochemical expression of CK2beta in EC and checked its role in cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth. CK2beta immunostaining was assessed in two tissue microarrays, one constructed from paraffin-embedded blocks of 95 ECs and another from 70 samples of normal endometrium. CK2beta expression was correlated with histological type; grade and stage; cell proliferation (Ki-67) and apoptotic index; immunostaining for cyclin D1, PTEN, AKT, beta-catenin, and FLIP. Moreover, the Ishikawa EC cell line was subjected to down-regulation of CK2 by shRNA. CK2beta expression was frequent in EC (nuclear, 100%; cytoplasmic, 87.5%). The staining was more intense in EC than in normal endometrium (P = 0.000), and statistically correlated with AKT, PTEN, beta-catenin, and FLIP. In EC, CK2beta expression correlated with cell proliferation. Knock-down of CK2beta blocked colony formation of EC in soft agar, and also resulted in decreased expression of cyclin D1 and ERK phosphorylation. The results confirm that CK2beta is widely expressed in EC, and suggest a role in cell proliferation and anchorage-independent cell growth.
Article: Cell biological studies with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against human casein kinase II subunit beta demonstrate participation of the kinase in mitogenic signaling.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Casein kinase II (CKII) is a highly conserved ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase composed of two catalytically active (alpha and/or alpha') and two regulatory (beta) subunits. It has been suspected that, among numerous other cellular functions, CKII might play a role in the control of mitogenic signaling. To test for such a role and its mechanism in intact cells, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated against CKII beta using a recombinant protein containing amino acids 20-200 of human CKII beta. The CKII beta-specific mAb with the highest reactivity, mAb IVG6 (classified as IgG1 with kappa light chains), was purified to homogeneity. It recognized a CKII beta epitope comprising the amino acids 140-156, a basic and highly conserved region. In addition, polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) were raised and made monospecific by affinity purification. pAbs-mediated quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy of human IMR-90 fibroblasts and/or Western blots of cell fractions revealed (i) CKII beta was present in exponentially growing cells at a 2-3-fold higher level than in quiescent cells, (ii) CKII beta was localized predominantly in the nucleus of cells (3-15-fold cytoplasmic level depending on cellular state and assay used), and (iii) the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio of CKII beta was higher by a factor of 2 in exponentially growing cells. Consequently, mitogenic stimulation of quiescent cells by fetal calf serum doubled the nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio of CKII beta. The increase occurred within the 1st h of stimulation. The translocation of CKII beta into the nucleus was inhibited when mAb IVG6 was injected into the cytoplasm at the time of mitogenic stimulation. This microinjection also significantly inhibited the cell proliferation. The data imply that cytoplasmic CKII participates in the transmission of mitogenic signals by translocation into the nucleus.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1993; 268(4):2733-9. · 4.77 Impact Factor